Mrs. Hochmuth. What Should I Bring Everyday?. Fusion Workbook Science Folder Science Journal Science Fair Materials Pencil & Pens Good Attitude!. What Will We Do Everyday?. Make Observations Write in our Science Journals Preform Labs Launch Labs, Mini Labs and Unit Labs
What Should I Bring Everyday? • Fusion Workbook • Science Folder • Science Journal • Science Fair Materials • Pencil & Pens • Good Attitude!
What Will We Do Everyday? • Make Observations • Write in our Science Journals • Preform Labs • Launch Labs, Mini Labs and Unit Labs • Gain Understanding • Reading for information • Creating lesson note outlines • Define vocabulary terms • Provide Evidence • Active reading questions • Lesson review questions • Lesson quizzes • Module Quest
Where Can I Find Things In The Classroom? • Extra School Supplies • Homework Turn In Tray • Replacement Handouts • Absent Work • Graded Work • Goals For The Day • Class Announcements • Additional Resources
What Are The Classroom Rules? • Respect yourself, others, and property. • Stay in your seats. • Be Safe. • Follow ALL directions given by Mrs. Hochmuth. • AttemptAll Tasks Before Asking For Help.
What Happens If I Forget To Follow The Classroom Rules? • 1st Time: Verbal Warning • 2nd Time: Lunch Detention • 3rd Time: Call Home • 4th Time: Office Referral NOTE: Any of the above steps may be skipped if behavior is deemed severe by Mrs. Hochmuth.
How Are Grades Taken? • Alternative Assessment & Quests = 30% • Quizzes & Labs = 20% • Homework = 15% • Projects = 20% • Vocabulary/Science Journal = 10% • Positive Performance Points= 5% • NOTE: • NO Late Work Will Be Accepted (Late = 0 Pts.) • 1 Daily Assignment will be dropped every quarter
7th Grade Positive Performance Points What are Positive Performance Points? They are points earned daily for: Bringing ALL materials to class Displaying acceptable behavior in class; NO gum Participating and staying engaged in class You will earn 2 points a day for a total of 10 points per week These points will be 5% of your overall grade, per class
How Do I Care For The Animals In Our Classroom? (Dead and/or Alive) • Ask For Permission Before Handling Animals • Wash Your Hands Before Handling Animals • Handle Animals With Care And Respect • Never Let Animals Out Of Sight When Handling • Wash Your Hands After Handling Animals
How Do I Get Involved In My School? • Sports • Baseball Basketball Track/Cross Country • Volleyball Softball Cheerleading/Poms • Team Activities • Math Counts Band/ Orchestra Speech • Chorus Scholastic Bowl Intramurals • Clubs • Art Club Robotics Chess J.A.M • Student Council- OH YES!
Spartan Learning Community • SLC is a time for working on AR and AM. • No Talking Or Working On Homework Is Allowed. • Bring Only Your READING BOOK to class on AR days. Your AM folder will be in your SLC class for AM days. • You may scan your AM exercises, practices, and tests in my classroom. I can also print off any assignments you need printed for AM. • The Library may be visited by one student at a time. You must sign out with your SLC teacher. • Use 7th Grade House computers to take AR reading tests. • Fill in any logs or questionnaires when you have completed an AR book.
What Are Alternative Assessments • An Alternative Assessment is any means other than a paper/pencil test to evaluate understanding. • Alternative Assessments may include one or more of the following: • Brochure/ Pamphlet Cartoon/ Comic • Diary/ Journal News Report • Song/ Rap Play/ Skit • Model /Diorama WebQuest • Quiz Board Poster/ Power Point
Assessment Menu • Choose 4 activities to complete per unit. • Each activity will be 25 points each. These activity assessments will take the place of a unit test. • Once you have completed an activity, you CAN NOT pick that activity again this school year. • There are 6 units that will be introduced over the school year. You will have a total of 24 activities completed by the end of the school year. • Do not spend a lot of money on these activities. Use the materials you have around the house. I have basic materials you can use or have here in the classroom. I suggest spending no more than a dollar or two on any activity.
Life Science Unit #1 The Scientific Method How can science provide answers to your questions about the world around you?
Science Journal #1: Vacuuming Coral? No, these two divers are collecting data about corals in waters near Sulawesi, Indonesia. They are marine biologists, scientists who study living things in oceans and other saltwater environments. 1. What info about corals are these scientists collecting? 2. What questions do they hope to answer?
Lesson #1: Understanding Science • What is Science? • The investigation and exploration of natural events and of the new information that results from those investigations. • What behaviors do scientist use in problem solving? • Reasoning, • Creativity, • Skepticism
Lesson #1: Understanding Science • What are the branches of Science? • Life Science • The study of all living things • Earth Science • The study of Earth including its landforms, rocks, soil and forces that shape Earth’s surface. • Physical Science • The study of chemistry and physics
Lesson #1: Understanding Science • What is Scientific Inquiry? • Observation: Using one or more of your senses to gather information and take note of what occurs. • Prediction: A statement of what will happen next in a sequence of events. • Hypothesis: A possible explanation about an observation that can be tested by scientific investigations. • Inference: A logical explanation of an observation that is drawn from prior knowledge or experience.
Lesson #1: Understanding Science • How do you write a GOOD hypothesis? • A GOOD hypothesis provides a possible outcome and explanation for the outcome. • Example: • Some plants are growing more quickly than other plants because they are receiving more water than the others.
Lesson #1: Understanding Science • What are some outcomes of Scientific Inquiry? • Technology: The practical use of scientific knowledge, especially for industrial or commercial use. (Computer controlled limbs) • New Materials: bone bioceramic mimics natural bone structure • Possible explanations: Answers the Who? What? Where? Why? When?
Lesson #1: Understanding Science • What is a scientific THEORY? • An explanation of observations or events based on knowledge gained from many observations and investigations • Example: The Cell Theory • What is a scientific LAW? • Describes a pattern or an event in nature that is always true. • Example: The Law Of Conservation Of Mass
Lesson #1: Understanding Science • How are Scientific Theory and Scientific Law Similar? • Both will be rejected if new observations do not support the theory or law. • Both are based on repeated observations • How are Scientific Theory and Scientific Law Different? • Scientific Theory explains WHY something happens • Scientific Law states that something WILL happen.
Lesson #1: Understanding Science • Where does reliable information come from? • Media: News papers, television, radio and magazines • Important to ask.. • Is the information truthful? • Is the information accurate? • What is Critical Thinking? • Comparing what you already know with the information you are given in order to decide whether you agree with it.
Lesson #1: Understanding Science • What keeps a Scientific Investigations accurate? • Good investigations: • Prevent BIAS-prejudice towards a specific outcome. • Incorporate RANDOMSAMPLING-method of data collection that involves studying small amounts of something in order to learn about the larger whole. • Utilize a BLIND STUDY-the investigator, subject or both do not know which item they are testing (placebo) • Are REPEATABLE- results must consistent among all trials
Lesson #1: Understanding Science • How do scientists stay safe during investigations? • Wear appropriate safety equipment • Recognize hazards and safety symbols • How do ethics fit into scientific investigation? • Ethics: rules of conduct or moral principles • Living things should be treated with care • Scientists should tell research participants about potential risks and benefits of the research • Anyone should be allowed to refuse participation
Science Journal #2: Understanding Science 1. What is scientific inquiry? 2. What are the results of scientific investigations? 3. How can a scientists minimize bias in a scientific investigation?
Steps of the Scientific Method • Ask Questions/State the Question • Make observations, State the problem, Gather information, • Research/Collect Information • Provide background information about topic • Hypothesis • Predict the answer to your problem • Experiment/Test your Hypothesis • Design a test to confirm or disprove your hypothesis • Analysis/Study your Data • Graph results, classify information, make calculations • Conclusion • Communicate results • You may have to retest
Lesson #2: MeasurementAnd Scientific Tools • How do description and explanation relate to observation? • Descriptions are spoken or written summary of observations. • Explanations are interpretations of observations • How do scientists use the International System of Units? • Scientists use the same internationally accepted system for measurement called SI units to make sure information can be shared and understood internationally.
Lesson #2: MeasurementAnd Scientific Tools • What measurement units do scientists use?
Lesson #2: MeasurementAnd Scientific Tools • A prefix can be added to a base unit’s name to indicate either a fraction or a multiple of that base unit. • Can be written • 1Kilometer or 1 km
Lesson #2: MeasurementAnd Scientific Tools • How are Accuracy and Precision related? • Accuracy: Description of how close a measurement is to an accepted true value. • Precision: Description of how similar or close measurements are to each other.
Lesson #2: MeasurementAnd Scientific Tools • How are Accuracy and Precision measurements limited? • Tools used • Measurements taken are only as accurate as the tools used to gather them. • Degree Of Rounding • Significant digits in a measurement include all digits you know for certain plus one estimated digit.
Lesson #2: MeasurementAnd Scientific Tools • How do you know if a digit is Significant? • All nonzero numbers are significant • Zeros between nonzero digits are significant • Final zeros used after the decimal point are significant • Zeros used solely for spacing the decimal point are NOT significant. The zeros indicate only the position of the decimal point.
Lesson #2: MeasurementAnd Scientific Tools • What tools do ALL Scientists use? • Science Journals: Record descriptions, explanations, plans, and steps used in a scientific inquiry. • Balances: Used to measure Mass. • Thermometer: Used to measure temperature of substances in ⁰C. • Glassware: Used to hold, pour, heat and measure liquids
Lesson #2: MeasurementAnd Scientific Tools • What tools do ALL Scientists use? • Compound Microscopes: Used to observe small objects that you cannot observe with just your eyes. • Computers (hardware and software): Used to compile, retrieve, and analyze date for reports.
Lesson #2: MeasurementAnd Scientific Tools • What tools do Life Scientists use? • Magnifying Lens: Hand-held lens that magnifies, or enlarges, an image of an object. • Slide: Thin rectangular piece of glass used to hold specimen for microscope observation. • Dissecting Tools: (scalpels & scissors) used to examine tissues, organs, or prepared organisms. • Pipette: Small glass or plastic tube used to draw up and transfer liquids.
Science Journal #3Measurement and Scientific Tools • What is the difference between accuracy and precision? • Why should you use significant digits? • What are some tools used by life scientists?
Skill Practice#1: Follow a Procedure Scientists often follow procedures developed by other scientists to collect data. A procedure is a step-by-step explanation of how to accomplish a task. The steps in a procedure tell you what materials to use, how to use them, and is what order to perform specific tasks.
Skill Practice #1 Follow a Procedure How can you build your own scientific instrument?
Skill Practice#1: Follow a Procedure Apply It: Answer the following in your science journal 1. Draw a diagram of your set up also known as a eudiometer. Label all the parts, and describe their functions. 2. Describe a scenario in which a life scientist would use this instrument to measure gases.
Lesson #3: Case Study • What is biodiesel? • Fuel made primarily from living organisms such as plants and plantlike organisms. (algae) • How are variables used in experiments? • Variable: any factor in an experiment that can have more than one value. • Independent Variable: Factor you want to test. • Dependent Variable: Observable outcome dependent on Independent variable.
Lesson #3: Case Study • What are some arguments against using biodiesel as a primary fuel source? • Petroleum: historically petroleum, a type of refined fossil fuel, has cost less to produce. • Sources of biodiesel: Some are concerned that farmers will begin growing crops for only fuel production instead of food production.
Lesson #3: Case Study • How did scientists discover fuel from plants? • Aquatic Species Program (ASP) 1970s • Original Focus: To use large and small plants to remove excess Carbon Dioxide produced by coal energy plants. • Shifted Focus: Uncovered that some small plants called microalgae produced large amounts of oil after taking in Carbon Dioxide.
Lesson #3: Case Study • How did scientists turn their observation into an experiment? • Step #1- Create a tentative explanation that can be tested by scientific investigation • Hypothesis: Some microalgae species can be used as a source of biodiesel fuel because the microalgae produce a large amount of oil. • Challenge: Finding the correct species of microalgae, and growing conditions to produce large amounts of oil.
Lesson #3: Case Study • Step #2: Design an experiment and collect data • ASP developed a rapid screening test to discover which micro-algae species produced the most oil • Independent Variable: Amount of nitrogen given • Dependent Variable: Amount of oil produced • Constants: growing conditions (temperature, light water quality)
Lesson #3: Case Study • Step #3: Observe impact of independent variable • Less Nitrogen resulted in… smaller sized micro-algae organisms less overall oil production • Step #4: Revise Hypothesis and design 2nd test - Hypothesis: If light is distributed more evenly then more microalgae will grow and more oil will be produced
Lesson #3: Case Study • Step #5: Design 2nd controlled experiment to test new hypothesis. • Where could Microalgae be grown? • Open Ponds • Plastic Bags • Glass Bioreactors • What does it mean for an experiment to be hypothesis driven? - To develop research strategies or experiments based on hypothesis.
Lesson #3: Case Study • What is the difference between a prediction and a hypothesis? • Hypothesis: A possible explanation that can be tested • Prediction: A statement of what someone expects to happen next in a sequence of events. • If light is distributed more evenly then more microalgae will grow, and more oil will be produced.
Lesson #3: Case Study • Step #6: How to distribute light evenly? • Bring light to Microalgae = Light rods • Bring Microalgae to the light = Paddle Wheels • Step #7: Analyze Results • Results showed that microalgae would produce more oil using light rods than just sun light • Step #8: Draw conclusion • Light rod system greatly increased microalgae oil production
Lesson #3: Case Study • Examine Benefits of Microalgae • Removes carbon dioxide pollution • Produces Carbohydrates, and Lipids • Used for Biodiesel, Bioethanol, Human and livestock food, and pharmaceuticals and cosmetics • Adds Oxygen back to the environment • Is Microalgae The Future?