Name of Tribe Appearance Government Name of Culture A. How small or large of a group do they live or associate with? Small nomadic bands to large confederacies? B. Do they have leadership? C. Do shamans have a role? D. How do they interact with other Cultures? Do they fight or trade? A. What do they look like? Do they have special tattoos, haircuts, jewelry or piercings? B. What do they wear for clothing? C. Are they especially tall or short? D. Do they paint or grease their bodies? Location in Texas transportation Food Sources Dwellings A. How do they obtain their food? Hunter/gatherers? Farmers? Fishermen? A combination of these? B. Do they use special tools or weapons to obtain food? C. What do they hunt, grow, or scavenge? D. Is one type of food more important than others? A. What do their dwellings look like? B. Do their dwellings show that they have adapted to their surroundings and use available materials? C. Is their housing permanent or temporary? WHY? D. If their housing is temporary, do they take it with them or abandon it? A. What is their common way of transporting people or equipment when they travel, relocate, or hunt/fish/ gather?
NATIVE TEXANS Pueblo Jumano Culture & Tribe Southeastern Caddo Gulf Karankawa Gulf Coahuiltecan Plains Comanche Food Housing Appear- ance transpor- tation Govern- ment
COMANCHE Plains Culture Comanche means “enemy” in the language of the Ute Indians, their neighbors. The Comanche became known as “Lords of the Southern Plains.”
Comanche Government The Comanche lived in small groups, called bands, that were led by chiefs. Band chiefs would all meet together to discuss and make decisions on important things.
Comanche Appearance Comanche women wore long deerskin dresses. Men wore deerskin breechcloths,leggings, and shirts. In winter they wore buffalo hide coats. They wore leather moccasins on their feet. The Comanche wore feather headdresses – the More feathers, the more achievements. They wore their hair long. Men put it in braids. The Comanche painted their faces for special fighting or hunting occasions. They often wore tribal tattoos on their chests.
Comanche Housing Comanche lived in tepees of tanned buffalo hides and long poles The tepee was designed to set up and break down easily like a modern tent. The whole tribe could be ready to move in 30 minutes.
Comanche Food The Comanche staple food was the buffalo which they dried or made into a sausage called pemican. They also ate smaller game like deer or rabbit, fished in rivers or ponds, and gathered nuts, berries, and wild potatoes.
Comanche Transportation The Comanche were skilled horsemen. Children began riding around 4 years old. The horse allowed the Comanche to travel long distances in pursuit of buffalo herds.
CADDO Southeastern Culture
Caddo Government The Caddo lived in tribes of permanent villages. The tribes were organized into a large confederacy Which would decide important issues, trade with each other, and provide protection for those who were threatened. The Caddos built large mounds of earth to put their Important government and religious buildings on.
Caddo Appearance The Caddo grew cotton, dyed it with vegetable dyes, and spun it into beautiful cloth. The Caddo also used Leather to make clothes. Men usually wore breech cloths when it was warm. Both men and women tattooed their bodies and faces. Men would usually shave their heads, leaving one long strip down the middle. Then they would paint their shaved heads.
Caddo Housing The Caddo lived in tall, cone-shaped huts made of poles and grass. They were furnished with chairs, Beds, and animal skins. They were quite comfortable.
Caddo Food The Caddo were farmers. Their primary crop was Corn, but they also farmed beans and squash. Men hunted for small game and fished using a trotline, which they strung across a creek to catch several fish at one time. They would also find berries, roots, and nuts.
Caddo Transportation Caddos walked most places. They did have canoes to get down or across rivers. They also used dogs to help them transport items on trips.
JUMANO Pueblo Culture
Jumano Government The Jumano lived in small bands and did not have a chief. Different bands helped each other occasionally. Jumano representatives would visit other groups to ask for help when needed or to trade goods (barter) and Services.
Jumano Appearance The Jumano usually wore clothing made from animal hide. The men usually wore little clothing at all. Since many Jumanos were peaceful traders (they bartered) throughout Texas and beyond, they wanted to be easily recognized. They tattooed stripes on their cheeks. The men shaved their heads, all except one long lock of hair, which they decorated.
Jumano Housing The Jumano lived in dwellings made of adobe. Sometimes these adobe houses would be built together in the form of pueblos.
Jumano Food Farming provided the main source of food for the Jumano. They farmed along the few rivers and learned how to irrigate their crops. They grew corn, beans, and rice. The Jumano also hunted small game and foraged for edible cactii.
Jumano Transportation The usual form of transportation for the Jumano was to walk. To help them transport the goods they traded, the Jumano would often attach a travois, or sled, to a dog.
KARANKAWA Gulf Culture
Karankawa Government Had a chief. This chief was appointed because he was the first-born male of the oldest member of the tribe.
Karankawa Appearance Karankawa Indians were known to be very tall people. Many were over six feet tall. The men wore simple Breech cloths and the women wore grass skirts. Since mosquitoes and other insects were a problem, Karankawas would smear aligator fat over their bodies for protection. The Karankawa would also tattoo bold patterns on their bodies.
Karankawa Housing Karankawa housing was temporary grass and cane huts called wickiups.
Karankawa Food Fall and winter they would camp near the gulf to catch Fish and other seafood. Spring and summer they would camp in the forest to hunt for small game and scaveng for nuts and berries.
Karankawa Transportation The most prized possession of a Karankawa Indian Was his dugout canoe.
COAHUILTECAN Gulf Culture
Coahuiltecan Government The Coahuiltecans organized themselves as small bands. Sometimes these small bands made alliances with other bands.
Coahuiltecan Appearance *Wore very little clothing. Breech cloths, fiber sandals * In winter, wore cloaks of rabbit of coyote fur. * Were short, possibly because of continued poor diet.
Coahuiltecan Housing Coahuiltecan Indians sometimes built wickiup huts out of poles and grasses.
Coahuiltecan Food * Men hunted small game with bows and arrows. * They also scavenged for lizards, snakes, and insects, and cactii. * A favorite dish was to let a fish lay in the sun for days to rot and fill with maggots.
Coahuiltecan Transportation They walked. These Indians were nomads – always moving in search for food.