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Chapter 11. The Late Middle Ages: Crisis and Disintegration in the Fourteenth Century. Timeline. A Time of Troubles: Black Death and Social Crisis. “Little Ice Age” Small drop in average temperatures Famine Heavy rain (1315 – 1317) led to food shortages

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chapter 11

Chapter 11

The Late Middle Ages:

Crisis and Disintegration in the Fourteenth Century

a time of troubles black death and social crisis
A Time of Troubles: Black Death and Social Crisis
  • “Little Ice Age”
    • Small drop in average temperatures
  • Famine
    • Heavy rain (1315 – 1317) led to food shortages
  • Population growth up to 1300 put pressure on food supply
the black death
The Black Death
  • Most devastating natural disaster in European History
  • Bubonic Plague
    • Rats and Fleas
    • Yersinia Pestis
  • Spread of the Plague
    • Originated in Asia
    • Arrived in Europe in 1347
    • Mortality reached 50 – 60 percent in some areas
    • Wiped out between 25 – 50 percent of European population (19 – 38 million dead in four years)
    • Plague returns in 1361 – 1362 and 1369
life and death reactions to the plague
Life and Death: Reactions to the Plague
  • Plague as a punishment from God
  • The flagellants
  • Attacks against Jews
  • Violence
economic dislocation and social upheaval
Economic Dislocation and Social Upheaval
  • Labor Shortage + Falling prices for agricultural products = Drop in aristocratic incomes
  • Statute of Laborers (1351) sought to limit wages
  • Social Mobility
  • Peasant Revolts
    • Jacquerie in France (1358)
    • English Peasants’ Revolt (1381)
  • Revolts in the Cities
    • Ciompi Revolt in Florence (1378)
the hundred years war
The Hundred Years’ War
  • Causes
    • Entanglement of French and English royal families
    • King Edward III (1327 – 1377) claims French crown
    • French seize duchy of Gascony (1337) sparking war
  • Conduct and Course of the War
    • Differences in the armies
    • Battle of Crecy (1346)
    • Henry V (1413 – 1422)
      • Battle of Agincourt (1415)
    • Charles the Dauphin (heir to the French throne)
    • Joan of Arc (1412 – 1431)
      • Siege of Orleans
      • Captured by allies of the English in 1430
      • Burned at the stake (1431)
    • Gunpowder
    • War ends with French victory (1453)
political instability
Political Instability
  • Breakdown of Feudal Institutions
    • Scutage
  • New Royal Dynasties
  • Financial Problems
    • Parliaments gain power
the growth of england s political institutions
The Growth of England’s Political Institutions
  • Edward III (1327 – 1377)
    • Parliament
      • House of Lords
      • House of Commons
  • Richard II (1377 – 1399)
    • Aristocratic factionalism
  • Henry IV (1399 – 1413)
    • Deposed Richard II
the problems of the french kings
The Problems of the French Kings
  • Weakness of the French Monarchy
  • Estates-General
    • 1357 meeting
  • Charles VI (1380 – 1422)
    • Competition between the dukes of Burgundy and Orléans to control Charles
germany italy
Germany & Italy
  • The German Monarchy
    • Breakup of the Holy Roman Empire
    • Hundreds of States
    • Elective Monarchy
      • The Golden Bull (1356)
      • Weak kings
the states of italy
The States of Italy
  • The States of Italy
    • Lack of centralized authority
    • Republicanism to Tyranny
    • Development of regional states
      • Milan
      • Florence
      • Venice
the decline of the church
The Decline of the Church
  • Boniface VIII and the Conflict with the State
    • Boniface VIII (1294 – 1303)
      • Conflict with Philip the Fair of France
      • Unam Sanctam (1302)
      • Captured by French at Anagni
    • Clement V (1305 – 1314)
  • The Papacy at Avignon (1305 – 1377)
    • Stay at Avignon leads to a decline in papal prestige
    • Captives of the French monarchy
    • New sources of revenue
    • Catherine of Siena (c. 1347 – 1380)
the great schism
The Great Schism
  • Papacy returns to Rome in 1378
  • Rival popes elected
    • Pope Urban VI
    • Pope Clement VII
  • The Great Schism divides Europe
  • Calls for systematic reform
    • Marsiglio of Padua (c. 1270 – 1342), Defender of the Peace
  • Conciliarism
    • Council of Pisa (1409)
      • Deposed both popes and elected a new pope
      • Popes refuse to step down
      • Results in three popes
    • Council of Constance (1414 – 1418)
    • End of the Schism
    • Pope Martin V (1417 – 1431)
popular religion
Popular Religion

Trends

  • Mechanical paths to salvation

Mysticism and Lay Piety

  • Meister Eckhart (1260 – 1327)
  • Modern Devotion
    • Gerard Groote (1340 – 1384) and the Brothers of the Common Life

Unique Female Mystical Exp.

changes in theology
Changes in Theology
  • Challenges to Scholastic Thought
  • William of Occam (1285 – 1329)
    • Nominalism
    • Consequences of William’s ideas
development of vernacular literature
Development of Vernacular Literature
  • Dante (1265 – 1321) :The Divine Comedy
  • Petrarch (1304 – 1374): Sonnets
  • Boccaccio (1313 – 1375): Decameron
  • Chaucer (c. 1340 – 1400)
    • The Canterbury Tales
  • Christine de Pizan (c. 1364 – 1430)
    • The Book of the City of Ladies
new directions in art
New Directions in Art
  • Art and the Black Death
    • Giotto (1266 – 1337)
    • Morbidity of late fourteenth-century art
change invention
Change & Invention
  • Changes in Urban Life
    • Greater Regulation
    • Marriage
    • Gender Roles
      • Male: active and domineering
      • Women: passive and submissive
    • Medieval children
new directions in medicine
New Directions in Medicine
  • New Directions in Medicine
    • Hierarchy
    • Trends
  • Inventions and New Patterns
    • The mechanical clock
      • New conception of time
    • Gunpowder and cannon
discussion questions
Discussion Questions
  • What impact did the Black Death have on medieval European society?
  • What were the causes of the Hundred Years’ War?
  • Who was Joan of Arc and what role did she play in the Hundred Years’ War?
  • How did the Hundred Years’ War impact the relations between the English King and his Parliament?
  • Why did the stay at Avignon lead to a decline in papal prestige?
  • How was the Great Schism finally ended?
  • How did Dante, Chaucer and Christine de Pisan reflect the values of their respective societies?
  • How did the Black Death affect urban and family life?
web links
Web Links
  • ORB – Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies
  • The End of Europe’s Middle Ages
  • The Black Death, 1347 – 1350
  • Medieval Dance of Death
  • De Re Militari – Society for Medieval Military History
  • The Age of King Charles V
  • The World of Dante
  • Geoffrey Chaucer