STARTERS:Grammar Review We can do this! Hang in there!
STARTER:Copy in your own notebook, not your class notebook. Noun: a word that stands for a person, place, thing or idea. Categories: • Collective nouns name a group of individual people or things. • Compound nouns are made up of two or more words.
Nouns—cont’d CATEGORIES: • Common nouns name any one of a class of people, places, or things. • Proper nouns name a specific person, place, or thing. • Singular nouns—just one person, place, thing, or idea • Plural nouns— more than one
Nouns—cont’d CATEGORIES • Concrete nouns are names of objects (rock). • Abstract nouns are names of ideas. (freedom, love)
Nouns—Cont’d NOUNS OF DIRECT ADDRESS—calling someone by name. Nouns of direct address are enclosed in commas. First of all, Elmo, you didn’t do your homework! I want you to listen, class, for instructions.
More Categories! • Singular—just one: book, flock • Plural—more than one: pickles, children • Common—not specific: boy, school • Proper—specific: Blake, Riverside Middle School
STARTER: Copy This! (YOUR Nb.)VERBS! ACTION! (OR NOT) • Verbs are words that describe action or state of being. Some verbs are called “helping verbs” because they help other verbs describe action or state of being. • Some of the “state of being” verbs function as linking verbs. Linking verbs link a noun or adjective after the verb (in the predicate) to the subject—renaming the subject or describing the subject.
Linking Verbs—Learn by Th. • Look • Sound • Feel • Taste • Smell • Grow • Seem • Appear • Become • Remain • Turn • Stay • Am • Is • Are • Was • Were • Be • Being • Been
STARTER Practice Quiz! On a blank sheet of paper, list as many of the 20 linking verbs as you can recall from yesterday’s lesson.
How Linking Verbs Work Elmo became angry. Subj. Linking Verb Predicate Adj. Elmira is a nurse. Subj. Linking Verb Predicate Noun Elmira = nurse COMPARE Elmo hit the umpire. Subj. Action Verb Direct Object Elmo = umpire.
Pronouns • Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns: it, him, we, etc. • Two categories of pronouns are Subject Pronouns and Object Pronouns. Subject Pronouns are used in thesubject position! (Ha! Clever!) Object Pronouns are used–yep, you got it!– the object position.
Subject pronouns—used in the subject position and in the predicate noun (subject complement position). Heis hungry. He=subject The heroine is she. She=Subject ComplementSingular Plural 1st Person Iwe 2nd Person you you 3rd Person he, she, it they
Object Pronouns SingularPlural 1st Personme us 2nd person you you 3rd personhim, her, it them
Object pronouns—used in object positions: Direct object, indirect object, object of the preposition. • Elmo hit him. (direct object) • Elmo threw me the ball. (indirect object) • For Elmo and me, the new rule will not apply. (Object of preposition)
Intensive Elmo himself voted for the change. • Reflexive Elmira gave herselfa pat on the back when I received my report card.
Possessive: my, your, his, her, its, our, their. These words are already possessive and do NOT need apostrophes! • Interrogative: who, whose, whom, which, what • Demonstrative: this, that, these, those • Relative: who, whose, whom, which, that • Indefinite: someone, everyone
STARTER: Copy in your notesThe Mighty Preposition! • Links a noun to another word in the sentence. • Elmo ran to the store. • The goal for Elmo is winning!
Let’s make a list! • Throughout, under, around, within, during, behind, below, through, after, beneath, above, across, before, over, in front of, ahead of, beyond, beside, between, next to, by, for, near, from, underneath, during, at, through, near, after . . . .
Prepositional Phrases • A group of words that will include, at a minimum, a preposition and a noun object. • Prepositional phrases function as adjectives and adverbs.
Adjective or Adverb? • Elmo ran to the store. • I want the doll on the shelf. • The cheerleaders stopped the afternoon traffic with their acrobatics. • The cow jumped over the moon. • Elmira ran up the stairs. • My expectations for this year are high! • After the party, Elmo called his parents.
Prepositional Phrases • Between the tall mountains • Over the intimidating goal • During the exciting class • Under the deep blue ocean • Toward the difficult class • Next to the big classroom • Outside the huge school • Above the tall building • Into the scary house • Across from the dirty jail • Without any Japanese food • Beneath the moldy floorboards
STARTER: Copy in your notes.Interjections! Wow! • An interjection expresses feeling or emotion (joy, surprise, pain, impatience, hesitation) and functions independently of a sentence. It is set off from the rest of the sentence with an exclamation mark or a comma. • Gee, I never expected to see you today. • Hurray! We won. • Ouch, I hurt my finger. • Darn, I missed my train. • We, uh, think you’re wrong.
STARTER: Copy in your notesAdjectives (are cool!) • Adjectives modify nouns (and pronouns). • Adjectives tell which one (that girl), what kind of (porcelain doll), how many (five stars).
Let’s practice! (yippee!) Find the adjectives in these sentences: • Elmira wants the expensive necklace. • The mean bully hit Elmo. • I want five Barbie dolls for my birthday. • Fred wants a purple soccer ball.
To what degree?? Adjectives can be categorized by degree. For one-syllable adjectives (and some two-syllable adjectives), the comparative is usually formed by adding –er. The superlative is usually formed by adding –est. • Positive—sweet, pretty, angry • Comparative—sweeter, prettier, angrier • Superlative—sweetest, prettiest, angriest
Two and three syllables? Use more and most for many two, three (or more) syllable adjectives to form comparative and superlative: • famous/more famous/most famous • reliable/more reliable/most reliable
The irregulars (of course!) Many degrees are irregular • Positive—good, bad, far • Comparative—better, worse, farther • Superlative—best, worst, farthest
Articles Articles are in a subcategory of adjectives. There are three articles: a, an, the A and An are indefinite articles. Elmira wants a boyfriend. (not a particular one) I saw an elf on my porch! (not a particular one) The is a definite article. I want the prize. (a particular, specific prize)
STARTER: Copy in Notes Adverbs (Read slowly!) Adverbs—modify verbs, adjectives, other adverbs: • Jason writes clearly and colorfully. • Rachel is quite popular. • He sings remarkablywell. Adverbs tell how, when, where, to what extent, under what conditions. Some adverbs are formed by adding -ly.
Let’s practice! • My students carefully completed the test. • She sings well but sometimes not loudly. • Elmo ran home but he was too late. • Elmira sometimes argues loudly. • The tortoise moved slowly to the finish line.
Degrees Adverbs also have degree: positive, comparative, superlative. • Slowly, more slowly, most slowly • Soon, sooner, soonest • Early, earlier, earliest • Clearly, more clearly, most clearly
Mix it up! The following sentences have both adjectives and adverbs embedded within. See if you can find them! • The pretty girl smiled slyly at the hot boy. • The sweet teacher gave a wonderful prize to the student who sang the jingle very musically. • After the difficult practice, our mean coach made us run fifty laps. • Her favorite song won the top award at our last competition.
Conjunction Junction! Conjunctions join! There are two main categories: coordinating and subordinating. Coordinating conjunctions join equal things: Elmo and Elmira are going to the prom. There are seven: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so (Think of the acronym FANBOYS.)
More and more! Subordinating conjunctions help join unequal elements, such as joining a dependent (subordinate) clause to an independent clause. If you behave, I might bring some Jolly Ranchers! Some of the most frequently occurring subordinating conjunctions: if, because, although, since, when
Two more categories • Correlative: multiple-words/pairs of conjunctions: either/or, neither/nor, not only/but also Neither Elmo nor Elmira wanted lunch. • Conjunctive Adverbs: act both as adverbs and conjunctions—e.g., however, furthermore, moreover, nevertheless, accordingly, and therefore. I love the new schedule; nevertheless, I miss the more frequent class changes each day.
STARTER: Copy sentencesIdentifying Nouns Underline the common nouns and circle the proper nouns in the following sentence: Elmo went to Florida for vacation this summer. Underline the concrete nouns and circle the abstract nouns in the following sentence: The robot in the showcase is an electronic wonder, a remarkable achievement. Underline the compound nouns and circle the collective nouns in the following sentence: Our backpacks are heavy and full of homework for the class!
Pronouns/Practice • Underline the subject pronouns and circle the object pronouns in the following sentence: He hates chocolate but won’t give me one bite! • Circle the possessive pronouns in the following sentence: • Elmo forgot to bring his homework today because he left my reminder at school.
Pronouns/More Practice • Underline the reflexive and circle the intensive pronouns in the following sentence: Elmo, the owner of the business, gave himself a raise this year although he himself insisted that the company cut expenses.
Pronouns/More Practice • Underline the interrogative pronoun(s) in the following sentence. Who took the cooler of sandwiches, and which ones were left on the picnic table? • Underline the demonstrative pronoun(s) in the following sentence: Did you know that student who won those top awards?
Sentence Patterns Subject Action Verb D.O. I.O. Elmo gave gift me Subject Linking Verb PN/PA Elmo is a doctor Elmira seems angry
Let’s Practice! Yippee! • Elmo hit the umpire. • Elmira is the valedictorian of our class. • Elmira gave the silly giant a carrot. • Fred offered no excuses. • Gillian became angry easily.
STARTER: Let’s Practice! Identify the main sentence parts in the following sentences: Mary had a little lamb. She gave me a lamb for my birthday. We became good friends quickly! Even today, we remain loyal to each other.
STARTER: Let’s Practice! Find the linking verbs in the word bank below: HIT YELL IT IS AM BECOME HAVE DESK HAS REMAIN APPEAR STAY IN OUT HAD SEEM SINCE BEEN