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Teaching Grammar in Context. Presented by: Hassan Sulaiman Abdelaziz Adnani. “In the past, a traditional classroom, with its emphasis on grammatical competence and explicit knowledge of language rules, did not provide occasions for learners to communicate…” -Adair-Hauck & Donato, 2002.

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teaching grammar in context

Teaching Grammar in Context

Presented by:

Hassan Sulaiman

AbdelazizAdnani

slide2

“In the past, a traditional classroom, with its emphasis on grammatical competence and explicit knowledge of language rules, did not provide occasions for learners to communicate…”

-Adair-Hauck & Donato, 2002

slide3

“Unfortunately, many students who spent years learning only the formal properties of the language (sound system, verb conjugations, rules of syntax, vocabulary lists) could not, in the end, exchange information, express ideas or feelings, construct and control problem solving, or develop and nurture a social relationship in a second language.”

-Adair-Hauck & Donato, 2002

importance of communicative competence
Importance of Communicative Competence

It is through communication that we are able to improve our world, to prosper, and to enjoy it.

-Cooper (1993)

Communicative competence stresses the need to know how, when, and why to say what to whom.

-Standards of FL Learning, 1996

learning teaching grammar in context
Learning/teaching grammar in context….
  •     “Grammar is a piano I play by ear. All I know about grammar is its power.”
      • Joan Didion

“Second and Foreign language learners want to learn language as it is really used – in both formal and informal settings, and in speech and writing – by native speakers of English.”

- Coelho

why is it important to know grammar
Why is it important to know grammar?
  •       “I never made a mistake in grammar but one in my life and as soon as I done it I seen it.”
          • Carl Sandburg
  • 1) to assess and remediate the errors and error patterns of second-language learners.
  • 2) the points of grammar can be used as the basis for teaching sentence structure and vocabulary.
what is grammar
What is grammar?
  •       “It is well to remember that grammar is common speech formulated”
      • Somerset Maugham
  • Grammar refers to the language patterns that indicate relationships among words in sentences.
grammar includes
Grammar includes….
  • Grammar is not a time of waste”
      • Nancy Cartwright
  • Morphology – the study of word structure
  • Syntax – the study of word combinations or sentence structure
slide9

What do the two major ways to teachgrammar known as Inductive and Deductive techniques mean?Induction: ……………………………………………………………………....………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Deduction:..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Task 1

deductive vs inductive
Deductive vs. Inductive

Deductive:

  • Students learn grammar rule

Use Rule

Inductive:

  • Use grammar rule

Learn Rule

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Deductive Approach:                     

General rule

Specific examples

Practice

( Top-down Approach )

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Inductive Approach:                       

Specific examples

Practice

General rule

( Bottom- up Approach )

when grammar is taught deductively the teacher
When grammar is taught deductively, the teacher…
  • Explains the rule to the learners.
  • Provides NO CONTEXT or COMMUNICATIVE PURPOSE for the grammar.
  • Focuses on form first and then meaning.
  • Drills students to learn the rule mechanically.
  • Assumes all responsibility for student learning.
when grammar is taught inductively the teacher
When grammar is taught inductively, the teacher…
  • Allows the learner to formulate and discover the rule (“to induct”).
  • Provides a CONTEXT and PURPOSE for use.
  • Focuses on meaning first and form second.
  • Helps learners discover the rule through meaningful communication.
  • Empowers the students to problem solve and learn how to learn a language. Source: Donato, 2002
george w bush speaking
George w. bush Speaking:
  • “Rarely is the question asked: Is our children learning?”

January 11, 2000 From a speech delivered in Florence, South Carolina, and reported in the Los Angeles Times on January 14, 2000.

slide16

George w. bush Speaking:

  • “ You teach a child to read, and he or her will be able to pass a literacy test”

February 21, 2001 From a speech delivered in Townsend, Tennessee. Reported by The New Republic (March 5, 2001 issue).

george w bush speaking1
George w. bush Speaking:
  • “The education issue ought to be discussed about”

December 15, 2000 Speaking to press during a meeting with Louisiana senator John Breaux in Austin, Texas.

main problems facing teachers
Main Problems Facing Teachers:
  • Explaining Grammar rules.
  • Organizing meaningful grammar practice.
  • Integrating new grammar with the existing grammar knowledge.
  • Dealing with grammar errors
  • Integrating grammar knowledge with teaching communicative skills
grammatical errors
Grammatical errors:
  • Transposition. E.g. I'll go to the chicken to fry the kitchen.
  • Omission. E.g. He a teacher at school.
  • Redundancy. E.g. Did he went to school last year?
  • Overgeneralization. E.g. Mom goed to work.
  • Ellipsis. Went where?
  • Tag. E.g. Nice fellow. That one.
  • Anaphoric start. E.g. This guy, he is cool.
stages of teaching grammar logically
Stages of teaching grammar logically:
  • Noticing. (How?)
  • Deductive / inductive.
  • Awareness raising.
logic of teaching grammar
Logic of teaching grammar:
  • the art of arranging a sequence of teaching actions to take the learners from the state of grammatical ignorance to the state of grammatical knowledge.
1 teaching interrogative sentences through writing interviews and dialogues
1. Teaching Interrogative Sentences through Writing interviews and dialogues:
  • Forming questions.
  • Replying with appropriate answers; grammatically correct sentences.
4 headless sentences passive voice
4. Headless sentences (Passive Voice):
  • 1. ………… is played by two players.
  • 2. ………… are written by poets.
  • 3. ………… were built in Egypt.
  • 4. ………… was being cooked.
slide29

The book adopts an inductive rather than deductive approach to presenting grammatical items. It is a rule discovery path: the learners study examples and from these examples derive an understanding of the rule until applying it becomes automatic.

What?

slide30

Students are actively involved in the learning process rather than being simply passive recipients; they are likely to be moreattentive and motivated.Rules that students discover for themselves are more likely to fit their existing natural structures . the rules more meaningful and memorable.

Why?

slide31

Students are encouraged to listen or read several times to complete different tasks. These tasks encourage them to discover grammar rules themselves and to move from controlled practice to freer, more personalized use of the target language.

How?

how can we teach grammar
How can we teach grammar?
  • Research indicates teaching grammar in isolation does not transfer into real communication
  • Grammar is best taught/practiced in communicative contexts
  • Supportive feedback is more helpful than overt correction
  • Students may need many opportunities to hear, read, practice a new structure before they internalize or produce it– months, years
specific strategies to use
Specific strategies to use
  • Use materials and plan activities that feature repeated language patterns
  • Use the content of lessons to introduce grammar concepts
  • Provide learners with the tools they need to talk about language
conclusion recommendations
Conclusion & Recommendations:
  • When Teaching Grammar there always should be:
  • Motivational context.
  • Learner interaction with others.
  • Learner activity.
  • A well-structured knowledge base.
slide35

Gradual introduction with careful steps and plenty of modelling.

  • Personalise the lesson/grammar point.
  • Create a meaningful context for language use.
slide36

The End

Thank you