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Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles & Vehicle-to-Grid Carl Lawrence, CEO of Hybrids Plus, Inc. The Road-based Transportation Industry. The Electric Power Grid Utilities. Cleaner, Cheaper Fuel. Distributed Energy Storage. Hybrid-Electric Vehicles – Then and Now. Series Hybrid Parallel Hybrid

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plug in hybrid vehicles vehicle to grid carl lawrence ceo of hybrids plus inc
Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles& Vehicle-to-GridCarl Lawrence, CEO of Hybrids Plus, Inc.

The Road-based Transportation Industry

The Electric Power Grid Utilities

Cleaner, Cheaper Fuel

Distributed Energy Storage

hybrid electric vehicles then and now
Hybrid-Electric Vehicles – Then and Now

Series Hybrid

Parallel Hybrid

Mixed (Hybrid) Hybrid

plug in hybrid electric vehicle benefits
Plug-in Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Benefits

More fuel efficient Lower emissions Lower maintenance

Distance Travelled per Gasoline Gallon Equivalent

One gallon gasoline (132,000 kiloJoules) $1.75/gallon

45 miles 3.8¢/mile

37 Kilowatt-hour battery (132,000 kiloJoules) $3.33

140 miles 2.4¢/mile

HEV gets 50 mpg

Zero Emissions for the first 40 miles per charge.

Toyota Prius

ZEV for 75% of average needs.

PHEV gets 100 mpg

GM Volt

future plug in hybrid electric vehicles
Future Plug-In Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

Ford Escape PHEV

Ford Escape PHEV

Dodge Sprinter

Cadillac Converj

BYD E-6 PHEV

Toyota Prius PHEV

GM Volt

Fisker

  • “Every major vehicle manufacturer in the world has an electric vehicle development program underway”
grid tied vehicle technologies
“Grid-Tied” Vehicle Technologies

Electric Utility

Electric

Power

Electric Utilities control charging loads for demand and time of day.

Utilities control power fed back into the grid.

Vehicle owner sets control parameters.

vehicle to grid v2g benefits
Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Benefits

Regulation

Vehicle Batteries

Spinning Reserve

vehicle to house v2h
Vehicle to House (V2H)

Electricity on Demand at Job Sites

Emergency Electricity

  • Large batteries in the PHEVs to eliminate engine idling.
  • Elimination of noisy, polluting generators
  • Rapid dispatch, deployment and initial operations.
phevs in the smartgrid city
PHEVs in the SmartGrid City

PHEV2G Deployment

  • 2008 -

6 Ford Escapes

  • 2009 -

50 Toyota Prius

  • 2010 -

500 OEM PHEVs

“Inverger™”

Technology in each vehicle

colorado alternative fuel tax credit
Colorado Alternative Fuel Tax Credit

"Hybrid vehicle" means a motor vehicle with a hybrid propulsion system that uses an alternative fuel by operating on both an alternative fuel, including electricity, and a traditional fuel.

[39-22-516 – 2.5(a)(II.5)]

Only uses electricity internally.

Unintended Consequences

  • Excludes Plug-in Hybrid-Electric conversions since “the hybrid vehicle is already an alternative fuel vehicle.”
  • Excludes the new Nissan hybrid since it uses E-85 and not a “traditional fuel”.

Results: Converting a Toyota Prius or a Ford Escape hybrid to a Plug-in Hybrid – replacing half of its petroleum used with electricity and giving it a usable ZEV range – is not supported by the Colorado Alternative Fuel Tax Credits or Rebates.