Vehicle Body Engineering G.VIJAY BHASKAR ASST.PROF AUTOMOBILE ENGININEERING DEPT
Active Vehicle Safety Systems Save Lives • We are on the frontier of a revolution in active vehicle safety • The technology to improve vehicle stability and reduce crashes is here today • Surveys indicate safety systems, like electronic stability control, are highly desired by consumers • Electronic stability control saves lives and money according to the latest traffic studies • Continental is actively educating key stakeholders on critical active safety technology
Crashes Cost Americans $230 Billion 6.3 million passenger vehicle crashes in 2002 • Nearly 3 million injuries and 42,815 fatalities • 253,000 passenger vehicle rollovers • Injuries declined, but fatalities increased • Highest number of fatalities since 1990 • Rollovers accounted for 82% of the increase in fatalities • 95% of all crashes due at least in part to driver error $230.6 billion economic cost to society
The Motor Vehicle Safety Equipment Exists Now to Help Reduce Crashes and Rollovers It’s Called Electronic Stability Control
Electronic Stability Control Improves Safety We Have Safety Technology Today to Make Mobility Safer!
The Bottom Line Make the chassis itselfelectronically intelligent Raise comfort and safety to new levels without sacrifices
Passive Safety is Job Three The next frontier isto prevent the crash from occurring in the first place
Active Safety is Job One The key isto prevent the crash from occurring in the first place This is active safety
Opportunities in Smart Safety Systems The key isto prevent the crash from occurring in the first place
Automotive Safety Continuum Phase 1: Avoid problem situations.
Automotive Safety Continuum Phase 1: Avoid problem situations. Phase 2: Maintain control if trouble begins
Automotive Safety Continuum Phase 1: Avoid problem situations. Phase 2: Maintain control if trouble begins Phase 3: Protection when the crash is unavoidable
Automotive Safety Continuum Phase 1: Avoid problem situations. Phase 2: Maintain control if trouble begins Our Focus Should be Crash Avoidance
Struts Driver Steering Springs Tires Chassis Mounts Brakes Improved Safety Through Functional Integration Electronics
Networking Active and Passive Technologies Will Improve Safety Accident preventing systems (Global Chassis Control) Stability management systems (Electronic Stability Program, Roll Stability Control, Electronic Stability Program II) Electronic brake systems (Anti-lock Brake Systems, Traction Control Systems, Brake Assist) Hydraulic brake systems (brake caliper, brake booster, etc.) Active Safety Accident prevention
Networking Active and Passive Technologies Will Improve Safety Goal: A vehicle that prevents accidents and injuries Injury preventing systems (OOP, CV) Accident preventing systems (Global Chassis Control) Stability management systems (Electronic Stability Program, Roll Stability Control, Electronic Stability Program II) Intelligent restraints (Satellites, PRP) Electronic restraints (Airbags, seatbelt tensioner,..) Electronic brake systems (Anti-lock Brake Systems, Traction Control Systems, Brake Assist) Mechanical restraints (seatbelts,..) Hydraulic brake systems (brake caliper, brake booster, etc.) Active Safety Accident prevention Passive Safety Injury prevention
Continental Brings together Know-How in Tires, Electronics and Brake and Chassis Electronics Tires Brake & Chassis
Full Circle Before:the industry “needs to do more”on the safety front
Full Circle Before:the industry “needs to do more”on the safety front Now: we need to do more to make our technology better understood and sought after in the new vehicle marketplace
Our Challenge: Make Consumers More Aware of Active Vehicle Safety Develop public awarenessof these possibilities to engineer a miss… Get them to buy them!
J.D. Power & Associates Survey Ranked Stability Control among Top 10 Desired Features
ESC Helps Save Lives Recent study by Mercedes indicates Electronic Stability Control can reduce single vehicle crashes by 30% • 30% reduction in the U.S. could save more than 5,000 lives Same Mercedes study indicated total crashes for vehicles equipped with Electronic Stability Control were reduced by 15% • Would save American public almost $35 billion • Would pay for the cost of installing Electronic Stability Control on all vehicles built in the U.S. some 7-9 times
Bottom Line in the Mercedes Study: There was a clear drop in the accident rate after standard installation of electronic stability control
Electronic Stability Control Helps Drivers Avoid Crashes - In Japan - • Toyota Study shows 35% reduction in single-vehicle crashes: could save more than 6,000 lives a year • 30% reduction in head-on crashes could save another 2,500 lives per year • 50% reduction for more severe accidents • Confirms Mercedes conclusion that electronic stability control is more effective in the higher speed ranges where vehicle dynamics play a greater part and where crashes that do occur are more severe
Electronic Stability Control Recommended For All New Vehicles - In Sweden - Swedish National Road Administration Study: • Electronic stability control found to reduce accidents with personal injuries • Electronic stability control should be implemented in new cars ASAP • Consumers should be advised to choose cars with electronic stability control, especially in countries with wet and icy roads
Electronic Stability Control Saves Lives • With fatalities overcoming the safety gains from seat belts and air bags (both passive systems), it’s now the critical time for the industry to embrace ACTIVE safety systems like electronic stability control. Using proven technology to save lives is a necessity
Raising Consumer Awareness www.esceducation.org www.drivesaferamerica.org
Are We Ready? The Technology to Help Drivers Avoid Crashes Altogether and Make all Vehicles Safer is Within Our Grasp…
Active Vehicle Safety Saves Lives • We are the frontier of a revolution in active vehicle safety • Technology to save lives, help prevent rollovers and reduce crashes is here today – ESC • Electronic stability control is as important to safety as airbags, ABS or seatbelts • Several recent independent studies from Europe and Asia prove electronic stability control saves lives and reduces crashes and their severity • Electronic stability control helps avoid crashes before they happen • Actively preventing accidents significantly reduces the number of injuries and will save thousands of lives annually • This proven technology is available to the North American driving public today, but most consumers are still unaware it exists
INTRODUCTION • AERODYNAMICS : Study of forces generated by motion of air on moving body. • CLASSIFACATION OF AERODYNAMICS : external and internal, subsonic , supersonic , hypersonic • FIELDS OF APPLICATION : aerospace engineering, design of automobiles , ships , civil engineering , design of bridges etc.
AERODYNAMIC FORCES ON A BODY • LIFT (DOWNFORCE) • DRAG • WEIGHT • THRUST
HISTORY OF EVOLUTION OF AERODYNAMICS IN CARS • DESIGN’S IN EARLY 20th CENTURY: cars with low speeds, no aerodynamic problems. • CAR’S IN THE EARLY 50’s: cars designed for big family’s , complete negligence of aerodynamics. • CARS AFTER 70’s: fuel crisis , need of economic designs , evolution of aerodynamics.
WHY WE NEED TO IMPROVE AERODYNAMICS IN CARS • SPEED better aerodynamics higher will be the speeds. • FUEL EFFICIENCY better aerodynamics , less work for engine.
AERODYNAMICS IN MCLAREN F1 • SPECIFICATIONS • FRONT END • REAR END • SCOOPS • WINGS Mclaren F1
AERODYNAMIC DEVICES • SPOILERS • NACA DUCTS • Increase rate of flow • To expose air to areas not exposed to direct air flow.
METHODS TO EVALUATE AERODYNAMICS IN CARS • WIND TUNNELS • Research tool to study effect of air moving over a solid object. • Trial and error process. • Special pressure paints for analysis. • Detailed analysis of air flow patterns. • Analyzing for the optimal design.
AERODYNAMIC IMPROVEMENTS IN THE CAR THAT WE ALREADY OWN • Keep your vehicle washed and waxed • Remove mud flaps behind wheels • Place license plate out of air flow • Avoid roof-racks or carriers • Close windows, close sunroof
CONCLUSION • Aerodynamics in cars is a factor in the over all performance of the car, it should never be compromised.