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Integrated Digital Electronics. David Holburn dmh@eng.cam.ac.uk. Module 3B2 Lectures 1 - 8 Engineering Tripos Part IIA. January 2006. 3B2 Integrated Digital Electronics. 8 lectures in L T 2:- Tuesday at 12, Friday at 9 Four handouts (roughly one per two lectures).

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integrated digital electronics

Integrated Digital Electronics

David Holburn

dmh@eng.cam.ac.uk

Module 3B2 Lectures 1-8

Engineering Tripos Part IIA

January 2006

3b2 integrated digital electronics
3B2 Integrated Digital Electronics
  • 8 lectures in LT2:-
    • Tuesday at 12, Friday at 9
  • Four handouts (roughly one per two lectures).
      • some gaps to be filled in
      • places where you need to add own notes
  • Two examples sheets:-
      • MOS circuits (lecture 4)
      • Bipolar circuits (lecture 8)
  • Various other notes, graphs and leaflets
  • Material on the WWW
3b2 material on the web6
3B2 Material on the Web
  • There’s a link to an HTML version of this presentation.
  • Point your browser at:

http://www2.eng.cam.ac.uk/~dmh/3b2

related courses
Related courses
  • Related activities in the 3rd year
    • Module 3B2 – Integrated Digital Electronics – Logic (Dr Udrea)
    • Module 3B5 – Semiconductor Devices
    • Computer-Based Project C7 - VLSI design (Easter term)
  • Related modules in the 4th year
    • Module 4B2 - Power Electronics and Applications
    • Module 4B6 - Solid State Devices
    • Module 4B7 - VLSI Design & Technology
    • Module 4B8 - Electronic System Design
evolution of the microprocessor

Evolution of the Microprocessor

Module 3B2: Integrated Digital Electronics

Engineering Tripos Part IIA

the first transistor
The First Transistor

New York Times

“A device called a transistor, which has several applications in radio where a vacuum tube ordinarily is employed, was demonstrated for the first time yesterday at Bell Telephone Laboratories, 463 West Street, where it was invented.”

23rd December 1947

http://www.lucent.com/ideas2/ideas.html http://www.bell-labs.com

the first integrated circuit
The First Integrated Circuit

1958, Jack Kilby, a young electrical engineer at Texas Instruments, figured out how to put all the circuit elements - transistors, resistors, and capacitors, along with their interconnecting wiring - into a single piece of germanium.

His rough prototype was a thin piece of germanium about one-half inch long containing five separate components linked together by tiny wires.

the microprocessor
The Microprocessor

4004: Intel’s first microprocessor

The 4-bit 4004 ran at 108 kHz & contained 2300 transistors.

The speed of this 1971 device is estimated at 0.06 MIPS.

By comparison, Intel's new P6 runs at 133 MHz, contains 5.5 million transistors, and executes 300 MIPS (million instructions/s).

intel 8086 8088 and ibm pc
Intel 8086/8088 and IBM PC

1978: 8086/8088 Microprocessor

A pivotal sale to IBM’s new personal computer division made the 8088 the brains of IBM’s new ‘hit product’ -- the IBM PC.

This was followed in 1982 by the 80286, on which was based the IBM PC/AT (Advanced Technology) computer.

intel 80386 and 80486
Intel 80386 and 80486

The Intel ‘386 (1985) contained 275,000 transistors. It was Intel’s first ‘32-bit’ chip, and was capable of ‘multi-tasking’.

The ‘486 (1989, shown) was significantly more powerful, and was the first to offer a built-in math. co-processor, greatly speeding up transcendental functions.

intel pentium
Intel Pentium

The Pentium was first introduced in 1993; it was designed to allow computers to handle “real-world” data, e.g. speech, sound & images.

The Pentium II (1997) contained 7.5 million transistors and is packaged in a unique format - SEC or Single Edge Contact.

scaling intel pentium
Scaling - Intel Pentium
  • Original design used MOSFETs with L=0.8 mm
    • Speed limited to fclk= 66 MHz

Relative sizes

  • Shrink minimum dimension to 0.6 mm
    • Raise clock to 100 MHz - 50% more throughput
    • Lower power consumption
    • Latest P4 uses L=0.09 mm ®fclk=3800MHz !!
intel pentium iv
Intel Pentium IV
  • Introduced late 2000
  • > 42  106 transistors
  • 217 mm2 chip area
  • Initially 0.18 m process
  • 75 watts @ 2GHz
  • Now 0.09 m Si process
  • 3.8 GHz max clock freq.
moore s law
Moore’s Law
  • Gordon Moore forecast exponential growth in the IC industry
  • .. so far his prediction has been stunningly accurate
  • .. the billion transistor IC is just over the horizon!

http://www.intel.com/intel/museum/25anniv/hof/hof_main.htm

moore s law20

10 9

10 8

10 7

10 6

10 5

10 4

10 3

10 2

10 1

Pentium®Pro

Pentium®

$5000

$2000

$500

$200

80486

complexity

Complexity

80286

Cost in $M

cost

8080

1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

Moore’s Law

1. Chip complexity doubles every process generation

2. Factory cost doubles every factory generation

silicon technology

Silicon Process

1.5µ

1.0µ

0.8µ

0.6µ

0.4µ

0.25µ

Technology

Intel386™ DX

Processor

Intel486™ DX

Processor

Pentium®

Processor

Pentium® II

Processor

Silicon Technology
web resource
Web resource

http://www2.eng.cam.ac.uk/~dmh/3b2

web resource23
Web resource

http://www2.eng.cam.ac.uk/~dmh/3b2

web resource24
Web resource

http://www2.eng.cam.ac.uk/~dmh/3b2