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Road To Independence. 1750, Mohawk Indian brought to William Johnson a lead plate; It was a land marker claiming the Ohio and all of the Northwest territory for the King of France It claimed also the Mississippi Valley for France. French Connection.

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road to independence
Road To Independence

1750, Mohawk Indian brought to William Johnson a lead plate;

It was a land marker claiming the Ohio and all of the Northwest territory for the King of France

It claimed also the Mississippi Valley for France

french connection
French Connection
  • The notion was one should join to fight against the French and prevent the French from assuming influence; America was British not French.
  • It was also a concern that the Indians were quickly joining also with the French because of colonial encroachments upon their ancestral lands.
  • French gaining ground and influence at the Connecticut Niagara and Kennebunk rivers and Lake Champlain—interrupted the British fur trade and Indian relations
french connection1
French Connection
  • Indians were resisting the British and allying with the French—British security was now an issue;
  • Indians resented the British because of their ideas of getting Chiefs drunk and then claiming they signed large tracts of land over to the British.
  • Pennsylvania had “Walking Purchases.” Could purchase as much land as one could walk in a day—this agreement unbeknownst to the Indians showed up in written treaties in 1730.
albany conference 1754
Albany Conference 1754
  • Because of the Indian issues and French encroachment, the Lords of trade decided the colonies needed to work on their relations with the Indians—mainly the Iroquois.
  • Iroquois leaders spoke at the conference—”The governor was ignoring the needs of the five nations, the French were drawing the five nations away from the British.”
  • Canadigara, “we have examined amongst the elderly … they deny ever giving such huge land tracts away …”
  • “The English have been defrauding us of our land … the French are willing to allow us our land …”
albany conference
Albany Conference
  • Mohawk called Hendricks, “Brethren, the Gov of Virginia and Canada are both arguing over lands that belong to us … it may end in our destruction … but they should first ask our consent to build or encroach our lands …”
  • “We need to live in bright sunshine, union and friendship … or the clouds will gather and not be very pleasant …”
colonial duplicity
Colonial Duplicity
  • At the heart of the matter was colonial duplicity;
  • Each colony was dealing with the Indians independently at the other colony’s expense;
  • Making deals and treaties that undercut the other and creating tension and distrust among the colonial agents;
  • Why Franklin and others suggested that the colonies must unite as a single entity to speak and contract with the native peoples. Get land and receive a fair reasonable land tax and treat the Native equally—Hence Franklin's Cartoon “Join or Die.”
colonial duplicity1
Colonial Duplicity
  • A united voice will prevail, but separately each will die—not from the Indians;
  • What Franklin and the Lord’s of Trade feared was that France would make inroads and win Indian allegiance; this was considered disastrous for the British, the Fur Trade, and the natural raw resources of America
war is inevitable
War is Inevitable
  • There is a theory that the Five Nations and their Union Speech somehow gave the colonists the model for Independence as the United States against Great Britain—maybe, but maybe not.
  • Franklin wrote to James Parker, “a voluntary union would be preferable to having it forced upon us by Parliament … it would be strange indeed if six nations of savages are capable of forming a union and ten to twelve European colonies … cannot …”
war is inevitable1
War is Inevitable
  • Franklin does not seem to be saying the Iroquois have invented this great model or system and America should copy it;
  • It seems he is saying it is strange that these savages can do this and enlightened highly civilized Europeans cannot …
  • Franklin wants a Union, but a voluntary one, not one imposed by others.
conference results
Conference Results
  • The conference which had representatives from every colony except GA and SC, sent its report or suggestions that a true colonial union needed to be seriously considered;
  • All colonies feared duplicity and feared loss of their investments so they rejected the union outright.
  • No one wants to give up, concede or share their interests with anyone—there is real jealousy of each other, and real hatred for France.
consequences of the ensuing war
Consequences of the Ensuing War
  • Americans who before the War considered themselves very British, now begin to understand they were not very British after all;
  • British treated them as provincials and rubes and regard them as cowardly and bad soldiers; Americans believe they are the reason the British won;
  • British blamed the colonial governments as inept, to the British, they consider these people and their governments as rabble—Americans now decide for the first time “We are not British, we are truly different.”
consequences of the ensuing war1
Consequences of the Ensuing War
  • 2nd Consequence—Iroquois are able to maintain their cohesiveness and power by playing the French off on the British and the British off on the colonists;
  • They have helped the British win, even though many other tribes helped the French—they lose a bargaining chip because the French are now removed from the equation;
  • They finally realize it is the Americans all along they should have feared not the British or the French. The Iroquois realize they cannot survive because the one thing that held the Americans in check was the French presence and the British ability to use the French to also keep the Americans in check
pontiac s war
Pontiac’s War
  • The War is over and Britain is in control of almost all of North America, Cuba, South Pacific, India, Gibraltar, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales are subdued. Without meaning to, they have become the first true Global Empire in History.
  • Pontiac’s War would the greatest best organized and brutal Indian uprising in North America
  • Around 1761, the prophet Neolin began urging Indians to reject European ways and return to the Old Ways—mostly concentrated to the Ohio River Valley
pontiac s war1
Pontiac’s War
  • Seneca leaders called on other tribes to raid British and Colonial villages, seize Traders, cut off trade and communication to the Forts and kill their soldiers;
  • One grievance was the British had cut off gift giving to the Indians—unfortunately what was left of the French fur trappers and Canadian French they continued to give gifts and try to woo the Indians.
  • Though the British had restricted western settlement, trying to honor Indian treaties and keep fur trade functional, Americans continued pushing westward—not enough British troops to police such a vast wilderness and frontier.
pontiac s war2
Pontiac's War
  • Fall of 1762, while treaty of Paris was convening, the Seneca killed to white trappers on Lake seneca—sent a war belt to other tribes to incite rebellion against the Whites;
  • Spring of 1763, Indians are now fighting in earnest, Pontiac, Ottawa Chief, is now in charge.
  • He tries to subdue Fort Detroit, but has to relegate himself to skirmishes and ambushes and a war of attrition cutting off supplies from the Fort.
pontiac s war3
Pontiac's War
  • Throughout the spring and summer, other Forts are attacked and cut off—making some headway;
  • By June 21, Pontiac has control of every fort west of Niagara except Fort Detroit.
  • Bad communication, no one is aware that the Forts are in distress until late June—British hurriedly rush reinforcements to Detroit, Niagara and Fort Pitt—initially the Indians beat them back.
pontiac s war4
Pontiac's War
  • Jeffrey Amherst considered using blankets with small pox to help disperse the Indians—official British version, contemplated but did not implement; Colonial version and Indian version suggest maybe it really did happen—small pox broke out;
  • Indians, however, were defeated at Fort Pitt—but maintained their siege on the other forts—despite English failures to relieve the sieged forts, Indians are not accustomed to siege warfare, became discouraged and abandoned the siege.
pontiac s war5
Pontiac's War
  • To add to the Indian vexation, what little French support they had, they learned it was now used up;
  • Though much bloodshed and brutality took place, Pontiac realized there was no way to sustain the siege gave up and went back to Indian lands;
  • Unfortunately, the colonists suffered more than the entrenched British—Paxton Boys began raiding the frontier—massacring a village of Christian Indian women and children--
pontiac s war6
Pontiac's War
  • Some friendly Indians escaped to Lancaster PA. The Sheriff tried to protect them, but the Paxton Mob attacked the town and killed the Indians.
  • The Paxton’s also went after a tribe of converted Moravian Indians in Philadelphia. Franklin led a militia out to stop the Paxton Boys and negotiate a settlement—
  • What this truly means is that the Euro-Indian relations were too far gone to change the course of history—and the British were not powerful enough to protect Americans on the frontier—once again it was American militia. Indians and Britain would become enemy #1.
imperial reform
Imperial Reform
  • Parliament recognized that America was quickly forming into a cohesive economic unit—Rich natural resources;
  • The idea was how to regulate trade and maintain some financial control over trade;
  • Parliament’s answer was taxation on external products—for control and financial viability.
imperial reform1
Imperial Reform
  • There had been tax and trade initiatives; now they were to have teeth;
  • War left England in £8 billion of debt (today’s adjustment);
  • Demobilization left many people without work; many unemployed left for America.
imperial reform2
Imperial Reform
  • Proclamation of 1763—forbid any and all westward expansion of the colonists—honor Indian treaties, appease the Indians,—to keep peace;
  • Colonies saw this as an affront—only the Crown and the Indians could make treaties--
imperial reform3
Imperial Reform
  • England was truly facing financial collapse by 1763;
  • American was prospering,
  • Parliament passed a Stamp Act(1765)—taxing legal documents, newspapers and college diplomas and any other print trade commodity.
imperial reform4
Imperial Reform
  • Tax explanation—England did not impose a heavy tax burden on the colonies—they were the least taxed of any British Protectorate;
  • Just ensure they would collect the tax; Full time customs collectors arrived in America to collect taxes; Admiralty Courts were re-established to convict smugglers etc …
  • There was a history of taxes, Sugar, Molasses, Iron, navigation acts etc … not new, just enforced
imperial reform5
Imperial Reform
  • Sugar Act 1764—actual tariff reduced—enforce collection;
  • Pamphleteers such James Otis, Patrick Henry and Samuel Adams argued the Tax was unconstitutional—no real representation in Parliament;
  • Virginia under Henry’s tutelage VA passed resolutions against the tax and parliament’s right to tax
imperial reform6
Imperial Reform
  • Boston became the “Hotbed” of agitation;
  • They destroyed a Warehouse where the Stamps were kept, Literally tore down the Lt. Gov’s house for trying to enforce the Stamp Tax collection;
  • Boston called a Stamp Act Congress and in a ‘Circular Letter’ denied Parliament’s right to tax
  • And refused to pay for the Quartering of Troops
imperial reform7
Imperial Reform
  • Franklin was summoned to explain the Stamp Tax—after all he agreed as a Colonial agent that the tax was okay, the colonists would not disagree; Neither Franklin nor parliament had a good read of what was happening in America.
  • Parliament was fragmented, either force the colonists to obey or cut their losses;
  • They rescinded the Tax, but asserted the Declaratory Act—Parliament does have the right to tax its colonies.
declaratory act of 1766
Declaratory Act of 1766
  • The language of the Declaratory Act suggested that the colonists were no more than provincial settlements;
  • They lacked the true English rights of self-government—too dumb and unintellectual—
  • It is interesting to note that George Grenville before the Sugar or Stamp Act sent a description and context of the Acts for the colonists approval—they refused to Answer, Grenville assumed as did Franklin—the tax was approved.
the american revolution
The American Revolution
  • Things begin to happen quickly;
  • More tax issues; social issues; economic issues;
  • Political issues;
  • The 1767 Townshend Duties; The infamous Boston Massacre; The Tea Party, the Burning of the Gaspee—Lexington/Concord.