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Chapter 14. Discussion and Review. Mongol Empire. Mongolian Steppes. Xinjiang Region – Typical Uygher [Mongol] “Yurt”. Mongol Invasions. Mongol Warriors. Mongol Archer. Gold Saddle Arch – Mongols, 13c. Gold Saddle, Front View – Mongols, 13c. Genghis Khan’s Tax Laws:.

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chapter 14

Chapter 14

Discussion and Review

genghis khan s tax laws
Genghis Khan’s Tax Laws:
    • If you do not pay homage, we will take your prosperity.
    • If you do not have prosperity, we will take your children.
    • If you do not have children, we will take your wife.
    • If you do not have a wife, we will take your head.
  • Used cruelty as a weapon --> some areas never recovered from Mongol destruction!
yuan empire 1279 1368
Yuan Empire (1279-1368)
  • Khubilai Khan
    • Declared Great Khan in 1265
    • founded the Yuan empire in 1271
    • Moved capital to Beijing
    • Incorporated Chinese traditions
      • Confucian laws and public policies
  • Government
    • Western Asian Muslims as official
    • Hierarchical system
    • Legally defined status groups
    • Confucians had a weak role
    • merchants and doctors elevated
yuan mongol dynasty 1279 1368 c e
Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty, 1279-1368 C.E.
  • Kublai Khan [r. 1260-1294]
    • Pax Mongolica [“Mongol Peace”]
      • Tolerated Chinese culturebut lived apart from them. 
      • No Chinese in top govt. posts.
      • Believed foreigner were moretrustworthy.
      • Encouraged foreign trade & foreign merchants to live and work in China.
        • Marco Polo
marco polo 1254 1324
Marco Polo (1254-1324)
  • A Venetian merchant.
  • Traveled through YuanChina: 1271-1295
    • “Black Stones” [coal]
    • Gunpowder.
    • Noodles.
yuan dynasty
Yuan Dynasty
  • Economy / Trade
    • Tax farming
    • Used paper money and copper coins
    • Revitalized trade
  • Cultural Diffusion
    • Encouraged sharing and exchange of ideas
    • Medical information, Science, Mathematics, warfare, etc.
ming dynasty 1368 1644
Ming Dynasty - 1368 – 1644
  • Closed borders to foreigners
  • severed relations with Middle East and Central Asia
  • moved capital to Nanjing; later moved backed to Beijing
  • The Ming were nationalistic and turned toward Confucianism.
slide23

2

How Did the Ming Restore the Chinese Government…

  • Restored the civil service system and made the exams more rigorous than ever
  • Revived Confucian learning
  • Repaired the canal system that linked regions and made trade easier
  • Supported a revival of arts and literature
slide26

Ming Cultural Revolution

  • Printing & Literacy
    • Cheap, popular books:
      • woodblock printing.
      • cheap paper.
    • Examination system.
    • Leads to explosion in literacy. 
    • Leads to further popularization of the commercial market.
  • Culture & Art
    • Increased literacy leads to increased interest in cultural expressions, ideas, and things:
      • Literature.
      • Painting.
      • Ceramics.
      • Opera.
slide27

Ming Silver Market

  • Spanish Silver Convoys
    • Triangle route:
      • Philippines to China to Japan.
    • Silver floods Chinese Market:
      • Causes devaluation of currency & recession
      • Adds to reasons for Chinese immigration overseas.
      • Reduces price of Chinese goods in Europe
      • Increases interest in Chinese culture & ideas in Europe.
    • Helps fund conquest of New World 
    • Encourages Europeans in conquest & trade.
ming dynasty 1368 1644 c e
Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644 C.E.
  • Golden Age of Chinese Art
    • Moderation
    • Softness
    • Gracefulness
  • Hundreds of thousands ofworkers constructed theForbidden City.
admiral zheng he cheng ho
Admiral Zheng He (Cheng Ho)
  • Ming “Treasure Fleet”
    • Each ship 400’ long & 160’ wide
  • China’s “Columbus?” 

1371-1435

admiral zheng he s voyages
Admiral Zheng He’s Voyages
  • First Voyage: 1405-1407 [62 ships; 27,800 men].
  • Second Voyage: 1407-1409 [Ho didn’t go on this trip].
  • Third Voyage: 1409-1411 [48 ships; 30,000 men].
  • Fourth Voyage: 1413-1415 [63 ships; 28,500 men].
  • Fifth Voyage: 1417-1419
  • Sixth Voyage: 1421-1422
    • Emperor Zhu Gaozhi cancelled future trips and ordered ship builders and sailors to stop work.
  • Seventh Voyage: 1431-1433
    • Emperor Zhu Zhanji resumed the voyages in 1430 to restore peaceful relations with Malacca & Siam
    • 100 ships and 27,500 men; Cheng Ho died on the return trip.
zheng he s mission
Zheng He’s Mission
  • Mission
    • To reestablish trade links with the Middle East
    • Bring Southeast Asian countries and their overseas Chinese population under its influence
  • Accomplishments
    • Acquired Ming tributary states
    • 50 new tributaries
    • Overall not very profitable
slide36

Why did Ming emperors turn their back on overseas exploration?

  • Confucian scholars had little interest in overseas ventures. To them, Chinese civilization was superior to all others.
  • The Chinese wanted to preserve ancient traditions, which they saw as the source of stability.
  • Fleets of seagoing ships were costly and did not produce any profits.
ming empire technology
Ming Empire: Technology
  • Ming technological innovation slowed after 1400, though the economy continued to grow.
  • The causes of the slow-down were complex
    • growth in population, large labor supply lowered the need for mechanization
    • Revival of civil service exam
    • scarcity of metals for the building of new machines
    • relative lack of technological challenge from military enemies were all contributing factors.
ming empire vs mongols
Ming Empire Vs Mongols
  • Similarities
    • Ming China was built on a Mongol foundation
    • political structure and administration
      • including the military system and a hereditary system of social stratification.
  • Differences
    • More ideological than structural
      • Closed borders to foreigners, severed relations with Middle East and Central Asia, moved capital to Nanjing
    • The Ming were nationalistic and turned toward Confucianism.
slide45

Geography of Japan

  • The surrounding seas have both protected and isolated Japan
slide46

Here come the Mongols

  • Only Severe threat to Japan Prior to World War II
  • Attracted by gold, pearls and power the Kublai Khan sent a letter demanding submission and tribute in 1268
  • Two Attempts were made in 1274 and 1281

Mongol Armour, 1271.

slide47

Japan Defeats the Khan’s Army!!

  • First attempt 900 ships and 40,000 men
  • Surprisingly a strong wind came up “kamikaze” or the divine winds
  • Destroyed 200 ships and 13,000 men
  • By 1281 the samurai had built a stone wall and the Khan’s army was fought off from the wall!

A stone barrier 20 km long bordering the coast of Hakata Bay at Fukuoka

slide49

Vietnamese LegendKublai Khan, the Mongol leader of thirteenth-century China, sent an army to conquer Vietnam. The Mongols smashed the Vietnamese capital but were repulsed by a Vietnamese guerrilla counter-offensive. A second Mongol invasion followed that consistedof 500,000 soldiers. The Mongols were met by a Vietnamese force of 200,000 men led by Tran Hung Dao who is today considered to be Vietnam’s greatest national hero. According to a legend that reminds us of England’s King Arthur story, a magical turtle arose from a lake and gave Tran an enchanted sword. He used this sword to again defeat the Mongols and then returned it to the turtle in the lake.

han conquest
Han Conquest
  • Han conquered the southern “barbarians” in 111 B.C.E. by always had trouble controlling the area.
  • Why? Geography
  • Viet elite adopted the bureaucratic ways of the Chinese.
  • Adopted Confucianism.
  • Adopted ancestor worship and extended family concept.
  • Buddhism became a dominant influence in the religious and cultural life of the people.
  • Position of women was stronger than in China
    • Trung sisters
independence
Independence
  • Massive rebellion in 907, taking advantage of political chaos of the Tang.
  • 939 won independence from China
  • Defeated all 3 invasion attempts by the Yuan Mongols
  • Vietnam's independence ended in the mid-19th century CE, when the country was colonized by the French Empire.
koryo dynasty
Koryo Dynasty
  • Root of modern name – Korea
  • 918 – 1392 C.E.
  • From the Silla through Koryo adoption of Chinese influences
  • Adopted Chinese political institutions
  • Tributary system to the Chinese emperor
mongols influence in korea
Mongols Influence in Korea
  • Cultural Diffussion
    • The Mongols shared information and facilitated the spread of technologies and knowledge to Korea.
    • philosophical ideas of Yuan China, astronomical observation, mathematics, and growing of cotton
fall of the koryo
Fall of the Koryo
  • Mongol invasion of 1231.
  • Koryo was a “puppet” dynasty of this time.
    • Overtime it will become attached and loyal to Mongols
  • In 1392, Yi Song-gye seized power and founded the Yi Dynasty (or sometimes seen as the New Chosen).
  • Yi Dynasty lasted until 1910.
slide55

Choson (or Yi) Dynasty1392-1910

  • In 1392, the Koreans overthrew their Mongol conquerors and set up the Choson dynasty
  • The period began in 1392 and ended in 1910.
  • Japan will control Korea from 1911 to 1945.

Painting on Silk - 18th century

yi dynasty 1392 1910
Yi Dynasty (1392 -1910)
  • The Yi kingdom
    • Established the longest dynasty in Korea
    • The Mongols shared information and facilitated the spread of technologies and knowledge to Korea.
  • Education
    • Moving from block printing to movable type, brought about a very high rate of literacy
      • Hangul
  • military technology
    • Patrol ships with mounted cannons, gun powder arrow-launchers, and armored ships
    • made possible a formidable navy
class system
Class System
  • Aristocrats (ruling class)
  • Yang-ban (Upper class)
  • Jung-in (Middle class)
    • Merchants, artisans, doctors
  • Chun-min (Lower class)
    • Peasants, farmers, slaves,
  • Baek-jung (untouchables)
    • butchers, executioners
slide58

Easy to Learn Language

  • Illiteracy is virtually nonexistent in Korea.
  • This is another fact that attests to the easy learn ability of Han-gul.
slide59

Han-gul Language

As the above examples clearly show, Han-gul. with only 14 consonants and 10 vowels, is capable of expressing virtually any sound.

hanbok
Hanbok
  • In the Choson dynasty people were garments called the Hanbok.
  • The clothes reflected the social status
  • people wore the clothes of different designs, patterns, and colors according to their social classes.
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