Effects of the American & French Revolution Europe Latin America
The French Revolution • More fundamental and profound consequences than the American Revolution • France = most powerful and populous state in Europe • Massive social revolution • Creates political consciousness among people • Worldwide impact • Becomes model for future revolutions
Declaration of the Rights of Man—August 27, 1789 Men are born free and equal All governments should protect life, liberty and property. Liberty is the freedom to do that which injures no one else; Law is based on the general will [not the king’s will] Rulers answer to the people. Rights include Freedom of Speech, Religion and Press.
Liberty Equality • Equality of rights and civil liberties • Equality before the law • No special privileges for the rich • Equality of opportunity • “Careers Open to Talent” • The notion of individual human rights • Government in which the people are sovereign • The importance of a representative assembly • The importance of a written constitution • The notion of self-determination • Freedom to accumulate property Liberty Leading the People, 1830
Nationalism The unique cultural identity of a people based on common language, common religion& Common national symbols. Napoleon teaches Europe how to rally around a patriotic cause
Congress of Vienna (1815) • Kings meet to restore the status quo • They restore Europe to approx. 1789 borders, • Agree to support each other & the status quo • Agree to keep balance of power among the states • This WORKED !!! They kept the peace between themselves for 100 years • But they under-estimated the tidal wave of political revolution
Toussaint L’OuvetureLeads a Revolutionin Haiti (1804) • 100,000 slaves revolt against the French and WIN • Haiti becomes the 1st independent state in Latin America Successful
South AmericanRevolutions By 1800, S.A. is controlled mostly by Spain & Portugal Simon Bolivar and others lead successful revolutions After 35 years, South America is almost completely free from European control
Louisiana Purchase (1803) Napoleon is short on cash due to war Napoleon offers to sell all French holdings in N. America to the U.S. for $15 million (cheap!) Jefferson agrees & Doubles the size of the US US now owns land from Atlantic to Pacific. America will turn this land into wealth and power – Thank you French Revolution !!!!
Revolutionary Movements in Early 19c Europe (1820’s & 30’s) Success Fail Spain^ Sicily^ Russia Poland* • France • Greece* • Serbia* • Belgium* *These people are breaking away from rulers that do not share a language, religion and culture . They are driven by Nationalism - trying to create a new national identity. ^These Revolutions fail because other European Monarchs help crush them. Greece and Serbia succeed because no one wants to help the Muslim Ottoman Empire
Revolutions of Unification ITALY (1831-1832) • This revolt was an attempt to unify northern Italy. • Austrian troops invade the northern provinces and the revolt is suppressed. GERMANY (1830-33) • Germans upset restricted freedom. • Metternich especially frightened by talk of nationalistic interests • He uses the Congress system to put the revolt down. FAIL FAIL For Now For Now Both revolutions are an attempt to unify people with common language, religion and culture
1848 • (again !!!!) Virtually every Major European country has a revolution starting with France (this the Revolution of “Les Mis”) • They oust the king, but have no clear agreement on how to run a Republic. • All men are given the vote. • 1852 – 97% promptly elect Napoleon III as Emperor. • With the apparent success of this French Revolution, every rebel in Europe is inspired
1848 – the Aftermath • Most fail outright, due to help from neighboring monarchs • Those that succeed are temporary • Like the French Republic, the victors are ineffective leaders • NOBODY knows how to run a republic! • Soon, every monarchy is back in power. • BUT nothing will ever be the same again
Legacy of the French Revolution People gain a sense of Liberty, Equality and Nationalism and they are willing to get involved. Latin America is free from European Control America controls most of North America. European Monarchs work together to keep the status quo, and successfully do so Constitutional monarchy is on the rise and divine right is disappearing. These failed revolutions left a seething, unsatisfied working class.
Submitted for your consideration Why, after 65 years and 3 Bloody Revolutions, did the French public elect Napoleon III to be emperor?
Final scoreout of 50 Revolutions • 18 • 32 FAIL Successful But the seeds of liberty have been planted