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Toward Revolution and Independence

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  1. Toward Revolution and Independence

  2. Introduction • European Rivalry • Background • French/Indian War • Tension and Revolution • Settlement line and debt • Tension to fighting • War and Independence • Declaring Independence • Opposing sides and strategies • Key battles • Conclusion • Key Terms • Proclamation Line • Stamp Act • Townshend Duties • Continental Congress • Lexington and Concord • Common Sense • Yorktown

  3. Themes • Background to the French and Indian War • Acts passed by Parliament and colonial response • Important events and battles of the American Revolution

  4. Introduction • European Rivalry • Background • French/Indian War • Tension and Revolution • Settlement line and debt • Tension to fighting • War and Independence • Declaring Independence • Opposing sides and strategies • Key battles • Conclusion • Key Terms • Proclamation Line • Stamp Act • Townshend Duties • Continental Congress • Lexington and Concord • Common Sense • Yorktown

  5. Bellwork • Compare and contrast British and French land holdings in America

  6. Distribution of Non-Indian Nationalities within the British Colonies 1700-1755

  7. Selected Population of North American • 1700 • French 15,000 • English 250,000 • 1750 • French 60,000 • English 1,170,000

  8. Colonial Wars – Britain vs. France • King Williams War 1689-1697 • Queen Anne’s War 1702-1713 • King George’s war 1744-1748 • Seven Years War (French and Indian War) 1754-1763

  9. French and Indian War (1754-1763) • French and Indian allies vs. • British, Colonists and Indian allies • July 3, 1754: First battle occurred in the Ohio Valley • Fort Duquesne (doo-keyn) • Officer George Washington tried to capture the fort but was forced to surrender

  10. Albany Congress • June 19-July 10, 1754 • Delegates from each colony and Iroquois Chiefs • Developed Plan of Union

  11. Albany Congress • June 19-July 10, 1754 • Delegates from each colony and Iroquois Chiefs • Developed Plan of Union • Plan of Union • Outlined by Ben Franklin • President General - Chief Executive to head all colonies • Grand Council - Supreme assembly oversee defense, N.A. relations, trade and settlement • Rejected or ignored by all colonies

  12. Check Up! • A • P • P • A • R • T • S

  13. French and Indian War (1754-1763) • Early Conflict • General Braddock and Washington attack Fort Duquesne • Overwhelming defeat

  14. French and Indian War (1754-1763) • End Game • William Pitt – Prime Minister • Plans three pronged attack • 1 – Capture Niagara River • 2 - Lake Champlain • 3 - St. Lawrence River at Quebec

  15. French and Indian War (1754-1763) • Why the British Won • The French were outnumbered in North America • The Iroquois sided with the British • Native Americans and Colonists used Guerilla Tactics

  16. French and Indian War (Results) • Treaty of Paris • Ended War • France lost its overseas empire • Spain gained Louisiana in exchange for Florida • Britain became the dominant power in North America

  17. Consequences • Pontiac’s Rebellion • N.A. attacked newly gained Br. Forts and outposts • “French never conquered us, neither did they purchase a foot of our country, nor have they a right to give it to you.” • - Pontiac • Proclamation Line of 1763 • Prohibited colonial settlement west of Appalachian Mountains

  18. Consequences • Proclamation Lineof 1763 • Prohibited colonial settlement west of Appalachian Mountains • Debt: • Britain accumulated a huge amount of national debt as a result of the French and Indian War

  19. Consequences • Proclamation Line of 1763 • Prohibited colonial settlement west of Appalachian Mountains • Debt: • Britain accumulated a huge amount of national debt as a result of the French and Indian War • Colonial Unity

  20. Cause The Events Consequence French and Indian War

  21. Check Up! • Proclamation Line of 1763 • England is in debt from war • Colonists join militias and fight for the English in large numbers • Br. capture Quebec • French Colonize the Americas • Colonists develop a sense of unity • Br. capture Lake Champlain • Native American take up arms for the English or French • Treaty of Paris: English and Spanish split French lands • English and French both claim the Ohio River Valley • Br. capture Niagara River • Iroquois side with the English • English Colonize the Americas • English attack Fort Duquesne

  22. Check Up! • 3x5 Exit Pass • Write a paragraph (4-5 sentences) summarizing the cause and consequences of the French and Indian War.

  23. Introduction • European Rivalry • Background • French/Indian War • Tension and Revolution • Settlement line and debt • Tension to fighting • War and Independence • Declaring Independence • Opposing sides and strategies • Key battles • Conclusion • Key Terms • Proclamation Line • Stamp Act • Townshend Duties • Continental Congress • Lexington and Concord • Common Sense • Yorktown

  24. English and American Tensions • Proclamation Line of 1763 • Prohibited colonial settlement west of Appalachian Mountains • Debt: • Britain accumulated a huge amount of national debt as a result of the French and Indian War

  25. Sugar Act • 1764 • Tax on molasses and sugar • Pay for defense

  26. Stamp Act • 1765 • Pay for colonial defense • Legal documents, newspapers, wills, pamphlets, contracts had to be printed with the stamped seal of the government

  27. Stamp Act: Reaction Legal • Stamp Act Congress (October 1765): Delegates from nine colonies met in NY • Delegates agreed Parliament had no right to issue taxes such as the Stamp Act

  28. Stamp Act: Reaction Legal • Colonists: This was a direct tax, which undermined local assemblies • No taxation without representation.

  29. Stamp Act: Reaction Illegal • Boston • destroyed the stamp paper • Attacked and threatened stamp distributers • Samuel Adams led Boston’s Sons of Liberty

  30. “Benjamin Franklin Testifies Against the Stamp Act (1766) • Q. Do the Americans pay any considerable taxes among themselves? • A. Certainly many, and very heavy taxes. • Q. For what purposes are those taxes laid? • A. For the support of the civil and military establishments of the country, and to discharge the heavy debt contracted in the last [Seven Years'] war. . . . • Q. Are not the colonies, from their circumstances, very able to pay the stamp duty? • A. In my opinion there is not gold and silver enough in the colonies to pay the stamp duty for one year. • Q. Do you think it right that America should be protected by this country and pay no part of the expense? • A. That is not the case. The colonies raised, clothed, and paid, during the last war, near 25,000 men, and spent many millions. • Q. Do not you think the people of America would submit to pay the stamp duty, if it was moderated? • A. No, never, unless compelled by force of arms. . . . • “Benjamin Franklin Testifies Against the Stamp Act (1766)

  31. Stamp Act: Repeal • Merchants threatened to boycott Br. goods • Parliament repealed the Stamp Act, yet declared it had the right to legislate colonies in any manner • This became known as the Declaratory Act

  32. Townshend Duties • 1767 • Goal: Generate revenue to pay salaries of colonial Governors • Governors salaries had historically been paid by the state legislatures • Taxed glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea imported from England

  33. Townshend Duties: Repeal • Boycotts resumed • Smuggling became widespread • 4,000 British troops were sent to Boston to restore law and order • Taxes were ended save the tax on tea

  34. Check Up! • How did the colonist organize and respond to taxation? • How effective were their reactions?

  35. Bellwork: Complete the following chart

  36. Boston Massacre • March 5, 1770 a clash resulted in the Boston Massacre • Result: 11 colonists wounded; five dead

  37. Boston Massacre - Accounts Paul Revere’s Bloody Massacre

  38. Boston Massacre Accounts Essex Gazette (March 6, 1770) Thomas Gage, commander in chief of all British North American Soldiers • “Thirty of forty persons…gathered in King-Street, Capt. Preston, with a party of men with charged bayonets, came from the main guard to the commissioners house, the soldiers pushing their bayonets, crying, Make Way! They took place by the custom-house….The colonists…threw snow balls. On this, the captain commanded them to fire, and more snow balls coming, he again said, damn you, fire, be the consequences what it will! One soldier fired…(and) the soldiers continued the fire…till 7 or 8, or as some say 11 guns were discharged.” • The mob proceeded…upon the Custom House…and attacked (the guard)….Captain Preston…hearing the (guard) was in danger of being murdered, he detached a sergeant and twelve men to relieve him…This party… was immediately attacked, come (colonists) throwing bricks, stones, pieces of ice and snow-balls at them, whilst others advanced up to their bayonets, and endeavored to close with them, to use their bludgeons and clubs; calling out to (the soldiers) to fire if they dared. • …(O)ne of the soldiers, receiving a violent blow, instantly fired…and the mob…attacked with greater violence…. The soldiers at length perceiving their lives in danger and hearing the word fire all round them, three or four of them fired on after another, and again three more in the same hurry and confusion.”

  39. Boston Massacre – Immediate Results • Colonists killed – Martyrs • British Soldiers – Tyrants • Soldiers were tried in court • John Adams defended the soldiers

  40. Boston Massacre – Lasting Results • Committees of Correspondence were formed • Information was exchanged and opposition to British policies was coordinated between colonies • All colonies participated by 1774 except Pennsylvania

  41. Boston Tea Party • Parliament passed the Tea Act (1773) • Tax on tea • Gave East India Tea Company a monopoly on selling tea to the colonies • Son’s of Liberty responded with Boston Tea Party

  42. Salutary Neglect • Salutary NeglectHistorically • Gr. Britain ignored colonies • Pay little for colonial protection and government • Applied mercantilism through Navigation Acts • Regulated trade

  43. Salutary Neglect • "That I know that the colonies in general owe little or nothing to any care of ours, and that they are not squeezed into this happy form by the constraints of watchful and suspicious government, but that, through a wise and salutary neglect, a generous nature has been suffered to take her own way to perfection” • Edmund Burke's "Speech for the Conciliation with the Colonies" given in the House of Commons March 22, 1775

  44. Coercive Acts/Intolerable Acts • Boston Port Act • Closed Boston harbor until city paid for the tea • Act for the Impartial Administration of Justice • Trials could be transferred to England for any Br. official. • Quartering Act • Locals provide for lodging of Br. soldiers • Massachusetts Government Act • Colonial council and law enforcers were appointed not elected • General Thomas Gage made gov.

  45. Coercive Acts/Intolerable Acts - Response • “The crisis is arrived when we must assert our rights…(British tyranny) shall make us as tame and abject slaves, as blacks we rule over with such arbitrary sway.” • George Washington 1774

  46. First Continental Congress (1774) • Colonial Response: First Continental Congress (1774) • Suffolk Resolve – Declared the Coercive Acts null and void • Declaration of Colonial Rights and Grievances • Continental Association – organized boycott of British goods • Some began to store weapons for a possible conflict

  47. Check Up! • The First Continental Congress States Colonial Rights and Grievances (1774) • Create a list of specific rights the Congress is demanding • Create a list of specific violations to those rights

  48. Rights Grievances

  49. Introduction • European Rivalry • Background • French/Indian War • Tension and Revolution • Settlement line and debt • Tension to fighting • War and Independence • Declaring Independence • Opposing sides and strategies • Key battles • Conclusion • Key Terms • Proclamation Line • Stamp Act • Townshend Duties • Continental Congress • Lexington and Concord • Common Sense • Yorktown