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Chapter 4 – The Revolutionary Era. Section Notes. Video. The Revolutionary Era. The Road to Revolution Declaring Independence The Revolutionary War Begins An American Victory. Maps. Routes of the Alarm Riders Battles of the American Revolution, 1775–1778

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slide1

Chapter 4 – The Revolutionary Era

Section Notes

Video

The Revolutionary Era

The Road to Revolution

Declaring Independence

The Revolutionary War Begins

An American Victory

Maps

Routes of the Alarm Riders

Battles of the American Revolution, 1775–1778

Battles of the American Revolution, 1778–1781

History Close-up

The Battle of Yorktown

Quick Facts

Images

Tensions between Britain and America, 1765–1775

The Second Continental Congress, 1775

Key Documents That Influenced the Declaration of Independence

Strengths and Weaknesses of the Continental and British Armies

Visual Summary: The Revolutionary Era

Boycotting British Goods

Battle of Lexington

Attack on Bunker’s Hill, with the Burning of Charleston

The Patriotick Barber

the road to revolution
The Road to Revolution
  • Main Idea
  • A series of increasingly restrictive laws angered many American colonists, leading to rebellion against Britain.
  • What you gotta know…
  • Why did Great Britain pass new laws in America?
  • How did the colonists respond to the new laws? How did their response lead to even stricter measures?
  • Why did the First Continental Congress meet?
  • What was the significance of the battles at Lexington and Concord?
1 britain passes new laws
1. Britain Passes New Laws
  • Grenville and the Sugar Act
  • French and Indian War left Britain with large debt. British army of 10,000 was left in the colonies.
  • England said the army was to protect the colonists, but the colonists thought the soldiers were there to intimidate them.
  • Prime Minister Grenville wanted colonists to pay for British troops through the Sugar Act, which taxed sugar and molasses imported from the French and Spanish West Indies.
  • Northern merchants felt this would hurt rum trade. Other colonists resented taxation without representation in Parliament.
britain passes new laws
The Stamp Act brings protests

Parliament passed the Stamp Act as another way to bring in money from the colonies.

Required a government tax stamp on certain documents: contracts and licenses, newspapers, almanacs, printed sermons, and playing cards

Colonists protested openly.

Stamp Act Congress organized by the Massachusetts Assembly to send a petition to the king and Parliament

Sons of Liberty, made up of unskilled workers, artisans, small farmers, merchants, and lawyers, organized boycott of British goods and put pressure on merchants who did not join the boycott.

Stamp Act repealed after British merchants saw sales drop because of the boycotts

Britain Passes New Laws
britain passes new laws1
Townshend Acts

Taxed lead, paint, paper, glass, and tea that were imported from Britain

Brought back writs of assistance, which were written orders that allowed customs officers the right to search colonial homes for smuggled goods

Britain Passes New Laws
2 the colonists respond
2. The Colonists Respond
  • The Boston Massacre
  • Boston merchants joined with merchants in Philadelphia and New York, along with some southern merchants and planters, in nonimportation agreements
  • Most of the Townshend Acts were repealed in March 1770, except for tea tax.
  • In Boston, where tensions were already high, colonists began throwing snowballs at a British sentry guarding the customs house. After British soldiers arrived to help, they fired into the crowd, killing five.
  • Samuel Adams introduced the idea of Committees of Correspondenceto spread the news of British injustices from colony to colony.
    • Became basis of a political network to unify the colonies
the colonists respond
The Colonists Respond
  • Colonial boycotts left a British tea company with millions of pounds of unsold tea. The Tea Act(1773) enabled the company to sell tea directly to colonists.
  • Many colonists did not buy the tea.
  • In December 1773 about 70 colonists boarded British ships loaded with the tea and dumped it into Boston Harbor.
the colonists respond1
The Colonists Respond
  • Parliament passed the Coercive Acts to punish the rebellious colonists. They were known by the colonists as the IntolerableActs.
  • Closed the port of Boston
  • Gave the royal governor more control over Massachusetts
  • Imposed more rules for quartering soldiers
  • The Quebec Actexpanded the province of Quebec southward to the Ohio river and west to the Mississippi.
  • The Roman Catholic Church would be legal.
  • French Catholics were guaranteed their rights.
  • American colonists thought the act limited their chances to live on the western frontier.
3 the first continental congress
September 1774

Brought colonists together as Americans

All delegates agreed that Parliament was exerting too much control.

It issued a Declaration of Rights protesting Great Britain’s actions.

Agreed not to import or use British goods

Agreed to stop exports to Britain

Formed a force of minutemen, colonial soldiers who would be ready to resist a British attack with short notice

3. The First Continental Congress
4 the battles of lexington and concord
4. The Battles of Lexington and Concord
  • Minutemen in Massachusetts were drilling on their village commons and stockpiling gunpowder and weapons.
  • British General Gage knew colonial militias were preparing for a conflict.
  • In April 1775 King George III ordered Gage to arrest colonial leaders, especially Samuel Adams and John Hancock, and to capture the colonists’ gunpowder.
  • Colonists’ gunpowder was stockpiled in Concord, a town west of Boston.
  • On the night of April 17, 1775, 700 British troops left Boston for Concord.
the battles of lexington and concord
Secret system of alarm riders was in place to warn of any unusual activity of British troops.

Paul Revereand William Dawesset off for Lexington to warn Adams and Hancock.

After warning the leaders, they headed to Concord. Samuel Prescott, another alarm rider, met them on the road. Then the British surrounded them and tried to arrest all of them.

Prescott escaped to warn the minutemen at Concord. Dawes also escaped.

Revere was captured. When they heard the militia guns, the soldiers let Revere go, but without his horse.

The Battles of Lexington and Concord
the battles of lexington and concord1
About 700 armed British soldiers reached Lexington to face 70 minutemen.

British captain ordered them to leave, then the militia was charged.

Minutemen fled, eight Americans were killed.

The Battles of Lexington and Concord
  • The British went on to Concord where hundreds of minutemen awaited.
  • After gunfire was exchanged, the British retreated toward Boston.
  • Along the way, the militia fired at the British from under cover.
  • At the end of the day, British casualties far outnumbered colonial casualties.
slide17

SSUSH3 The student will explain the primary causes of the American Revolution.

a. Explain how the end of Anglo-French imperial competition as seen in the French and Indian War and the 1763 Treaty of Paris laid the groundwork for the American Revolution.

b. Explain colonial response to such British actions as the Proclamation of 1763, the Stamp Act, and the Intolerable Acts as seen in Sons and Daughters of Liberty and Committees of Correspondence.

c. Explain the importance of Thomas Paine’s Common Sense to the movement for independence.

eoct review
EOCT Review

Committees of correspondence would have

been MOST devoted to which of the

following?

A. raising tobacco

B. enforcing the Stamp Act

C. protecting the king's reputation

D. encouraging discontent among the colonists

eoct review1
EOCT Review

Who were the Sons of Liberty and the Daughters of Liberty?

  • support and enforce the boycotts
  • used violence to intimidate any merchant or royal official who might otherwise use the stamps
  • the Daughters of Liberty often used their skills to weave fabric and other products that were usually bought from Britain
eoct review2
EOCT Review

The quote, “No taxation without representation!” is associated with

  • Southern discontent prior to the Civil War
  • The colonies’ anger over laws like the Stamp Act

C. The rise of conservatism in the 1960s

D. The election of Ronald Regan in 1980

eoct review3
EOCT Review

John Locke and Montesquieu can BEST be described as

A. Federalists.

B. Jeffersonian Republicans.

C. political philosophers whose ideas influenced the Founding Fathers.

D. supporters of the Great Compromise.

eoct review4
EOCT Review

The principle that governments are subject to certain laws is called

A. democracy.

B. autocracy.

C. limited government.

D. salutary neglect

the road to revolution1
The Road to Revolution
  • Main Idea
  • A series of increasingly restrictive laws angered many American colonists, leading to rebellion against Britain.
  • What you gotta know…
  • Why did Great Britain pass new laws in America?
  • How did the colonists respond to the new laws? How did their response lead to even stricter measures?
  • Why did the First Continental Congress meet?
  • What was the significance of the battles at Lexington and Concord?
declaring independence
Declaring Independence
  • Main Idea
  • The French and Indian War established British dominance in North America but put a strain on the relationship with the colonists.
  • Reading Focus
  • How did France develop an empire in North America?
  • Why did Spain and England clash in North America?
  • What were major events in the French and Indian War?
  • What were the effects of the French and Indian War on all those involved?
the second continental congress takes action
The Second Continental Congress Takes Action
  • Formed the Continental Army
  • Appointed George Washington commander in chief
  • Issued a Continental (national) currency
  • Wrote A Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms
  • Proposed reconciliation with King George III in the Olive Branch Petition
  • King George III declared colonies to be in rebellion
  • Parliament passed law banning colonial trade outside the British Empire.
more violence in boston
The siege of Boston

After the battles at Lexington and Concord, British troops withdrew back into Boston.

Several thousand British troops occupied the town.

The Americans had a larger army of about 15,000 militia from all over New England.

More Violence in Boston
more violence in boston1
More Violence in Boston
  • First major battle of the Revolutionary War, the Battle of Bunker Hill on June 17, 1775
  • British General Gage was planning to occupy the hills overlooking Boston when his reinforcements arrived.
  • Colonial force quickly built a fort on Breed’s Hill.
  • Some 2,500 British troops stormed the hill twice.
  • The colonists were short of ammunition; they waited until the enemy was a few yards away, then fired with deadly aim.
  • On the third British attempt, the colonists ran out of gunpowder. They retreated to nearby Bunker Hill.
  • The British won, but the defense at the Battle of Bunker Hill encouraged the colonists’ resistance.
more violence in boston2
George Washington

Commanded the Continental Army in Boston after the Battle of Bunker Hill.

By March 1776, he was ready to recapture Boston.

Forced the British to evacuate the city

British sailed for Halifax, Nova Scotia, along with about 1,100 Loyalists; colonists sided with the king and Britain.

More Violence in Boston
  • Other battles
  • Winter 1775–1776, BenedictArnold led an unsuccessful attack on the city of Quebec.
  • February 1776, Scottish Loyalists attacked a colonial force at MooresCreek, North Carolina.
    • Well-armed colonists were waiting, and their victory ended British control in North Carolina.
  • In June, British ships attacked a fort near Charleston, South Carolina, but the fort’s commander held them off.
the declaration of independence
The Declaration of Independence
  • More colonists supporting independence
  • Were angry at the king’s reaction to the Olive Branch Petition
  • They learned that the British were recruiting Native Americans and African Americans to fight against them.
  • They heard that the king was hiring mercenary soldiers from the German state of Hesse.
  • When the Continental Congress met again, it opened seaports to foreign trade except with Britain.
slide30

The Declaration of Independence

  • Revolutionary ideology
  • The colonists still thought of themselves as British.
  • They believed they were entitled to all the rights that British citizens had claimed over the years.
  • John Locke’s idea of natural rights was part of their revolutionary ideology.
slide31
A matter of Common Sense

Early in 1776 ThomasPaine published a pamphlet called Common Sense.

Condemned monarchy and particularly the rule of George III

Called for an American declaration of independence, not just a protest against taxes

The pamphlet sold more than 100,000 copies. It was one of the first American bestsellers.

The Declaration of Independence

slide32
Virginia calls for independence

In May 1776 the Virginia Convention of Delegates issued the Virginia Declaration of Rights, the first official call for American independence.

Influenced the Declaration of Independence, the Bill of Rights, and many state constitutions

Richard Henry Lee of Virginia then presented three resolutions to the Continental Congress.

The colonies should be independent.

Americans needed to form foreign alliances for support.

The colonies needed to form a plan for unification.

The Declaration of Independence

the declaration of independence1
The Declaration of Independence
  • Writing the Declaration
  • The Continental Congress organized a committee to write a draft of a declaration of independence.
    • John Adams, Robert Livingston, Roger Sherman, Thomas Jefferson, and Benjamin Franklin. Jefferson was chosen to write the draft.
  • On July 2, 1776, Congress approved final document and voted to declare independence.
  • On July 4, they approved the entire document.
reactions to independence

Colonists living on the western frontier not a part of the political quarrels

  • A fight for independence would expose them to Indian attack since fighting would draw men away from the defense of the frontier.
  • Many frontier settlers did not support the fight for independence.
Reactions to Independence
  • A quarter of the colonists remained loyal to Great Britain and the king; Patriots called them Loyalists.
  • Loyalists were strong in southern colonies.
  • Loyalist sympathies were strong among people who had been government officials or belonged to the Anglican Church.
  • Patriots harassed Loyalists.
  • Loyalists fought with the British.
  • Others left the country for other British lands.
  • Some simply lived quietly and avoided politics.
  • After the American Revolution ended, perhaps 100,000 Loyalists left the United States, mainly to settle in Canada.
eoct practice
EOCT Practice

What was commonly transported along route 1 on the map?

A. slaves

B. immigrants

C. raw materials

D. manufactured goods

eoct practice1
EOCT Practice

Which factor directly affected the settlement of New England in the 1600s?

A religious persecution in Great Britain

B the opportunity to cultivate tobacco

C growing conflict with southern farmers

D the chance to participate in the slave trade

eoct practice2

Mercantilism

EOCT Practice

This theory held that Earth had a limited supply of wealth in

the form of natural resources, especially gold and silver, so

the best way to become a stronger nation was to acquire the

most wealth. Because the world’s wealth was thought

to be limited, the more one country had, the less any other

country could have.

What’s the vocabulary term

declaring independence1
Declaring Independence
  • Main Idea
  • The French and Indian War established British dominance in North America but put a strain on the relationship with the colonists.
  •  Answer ‘em up 
  • How did France develop an empire in North America?
  • Why did Spain and England clash in North America?
  • What were major events in the French and Indian War?
  • What were the effects of the French and Indian War on all those involved?
the revolutionary war begins
The Revolutionary War Begins
  • The Main Idea
  • While the colonies and the British began with different strengths and weaknesses, the Revolutionary War demonstrated Washington’s great leadership.
  • You should know it…
  • What groups of people played a part in the Revolutionary War?
  • What major revolutionary battles took place in the North?
  • In what ways was the Battle of Saratoga a British setback?
  • How did Washington’s leadership at Valley Forge influence the course of the Revolutionary War?
the people behind the american revolution
Continental Army

Strengths

Strong military leadership

Fighting on home territory

Alliance with France

Weaknesses

Small, untrained military

Shortages of resources

Weak central government

British Army

Strengths

Well-trained military

Ample resources

Alliances with Loyalists

Weaknesses

Fighting in unfamiliar territory

Fighting far from home

The People behind the American Revolution
the people behind the american revolution1
Women’s Roles

Active in boycotts and other protests

Cared for wounded in their homes

Raised money to supply the army with food and clothing

At home, women knit wool stockings and made bandages for the troops.

Some melted down their pewter pots and pitchers to make bullets.

As in all wars, women kept their homes, farms, and shops running while the men were at war.

The People behind the American Revolution
the people behind the american revolution2
The People Behind the American Revolution
  • African American Roles
  • Free and enslaved fought on both sides of the war.
  • Some offers of freedom in exchange for military service came from both sides.
  • Continental Army’s need for soldiers overcame prejudice.
  • New England regiments had the most African Americans.
  • African American soldiers generally received the same pay, clothing, and rations as whites.
  • Most had menial duties, were kept at low ranks, and were not encouraged to re-enlist.
the people behind the american revolution3
The Role of Native Americans

Four of the Six Nations of the Iroquois League helped the British.

Oneidas and Tuscaroras sided with the Americans.

On the frontiers, Loyalists and Native Americans sometimes fought together.

In the mountains of Virginia and the Carolinas, the Cherokees attacked some settlements.

Patriot militias fought back fiercely and tried to force the Cherokees to move west.

The People behind the American Revolution
revolutionary battles in the north
Revolutionary Battles in the North
  • After his defeat in Boston, Howe returned to New York in August 1776 with a force of more than 300 ships and approximately 30,000 British soldiers.
  • Rebels were offered a pardon if they would give in and promise loyalty. Washington refused.
  • Howe captured Long Island and took many Americans prisoner.
  • In the fall, Howe’s army forced Washington to retreat from Manhattan to New Jersey.
revolutionary battles in the north1
Revolutionary Battles in the North
  • In European warfare, armies did not fight in the winter.
  • Howe’s men were in Princeton while the Hessians were in Trenton.
  • Washington did not follow European warfare.
  • On Christmas night 1776 he and his men crossed the Delaware River to Trenton and took the Hessians, capturing weapons and ammunition.
  • They drove the British out of Princeton.
revolutionary battles in the north2
Revolutionary Battles in the North
  • Spring 1777—Britain’s plan was to cut NewEngland off from the rest of the colonies.
  • Howe attacked Philadelphia with an army of 15,000. In September he met Washington and his army of 11,000 in southeastern Pennsylvania. The British won the Battle of BrandywineCreek, but the Americans escaped without serious casualties.
  • Howe captured Philadelphia, where he and his troops settled comfortably for the winter.
  • The ContinentalCongress fled the city.
  • Washington and his exhausted troops settled into quarters at ValleyForge, Pennsylvania, for the winter of 1777–1778.
a british setback at saratoga
A British Setback at Saratoga
  • Burgoyne’s army recaptured Fort Ticonderoga on July 5, 1777, a serious loss for the Americans.
  • In early August, British attacked Fort Stanwix in one of the bloodiest battles of the war. An American force arrived to hold the fort.
  • Burgoyne’s force was now short of supplies.
  • In early October, Burgoyne and his 5,000 men were at Saratoga, New York, surrounded by an American force of 17,000 under General Gates.
  • After trying to break through Continental lines, he surrendered on October 17, 1777.
  • The Battle of Saratogais considered the turning point of the Revolutionary War.
washington s leadership at valley forge
Washington’s Leadership at Valley Forge
  • The winter of 1777–1778 at Valley Forge was the low point of the Revolution for the Continental Army.
  • Bitter winter weather with inadequate housing
  • Food was scarce.
  • Soldiers in worn, ragged uniforms
  • Many of the men became ill, and hundreds died.
  • The winter at Valley Forge was a tough test of Washington’s leadership.
  • Washington’s Leadership
  • His firm character and common sense helped hold the troops together. He always managed to keep a national army in the field.
  • His men admired him.
washington s leadership at valley forge1
Washington’s Leadership at Valley Forge
  • Congress did not have the power to tax people.
  • Congress and the states printed paper money with little to back it up. As a result, it was worthless, and prices soared. This situation is known as inflation.

MoneyProblems

  • Some farmers and merchants chose to trade with the British, who had gold and silver coin.
  • Resulted in the food shortages at Valley Forge
  • Several European officers joined the American cause.
  • Baron von Steuben of the Prussian army drilled Washington’s troops at Valley Forge.
  • Marquis de Lafayettewas an aide to Washington.

Help

eoct practice3
EOCT Practice

How did colonists react to the Proclamation of 1763?

A They resisted the British regulation of colonial agriculture.

B They supported the right to manufacture goods within the colonies.

C They opposed the ban on colonial expansion into western lands.

D They accepted the presence of more British troops to protect the colonies.

eoct practice4
EOCT Practice

Who is this?

  • Born into a poor Boston family in 1706.
  • At age 12, he became an apprentice to one of his brothers, who was a printer.
  • At age 17, ran away to Philadelphia to start a life of his own choosing, independent from his family. A few months later he sailed to London to gain more experience in the printing business.
  • He returned to Philadelphia in 1726 as an experienced printer, writer, and businessman. These are just some examples of how, throughout his life,
  • sought ways to improve himself (individualism) and to rise in society (social mobility).
  • Over his 84-year life, Franklin succeeded in making himself one
  • of the world’s leading authors, philosophers, scientists, inventors, and politicians.
the revolutionary war begins1
The Revolutionary War Begins
  • The Main Idea
  • While the colonies and the British began with different strengths and weaknesses, the Revolutionary War demonstrated Washington’s great leadership.
  • You should know it…
  • What groups of people played a part in the Revolutionary War?
  • What major revolutionary battles took place in the North?
  • In what ways was the Battle of Saratoga a British setback?
  • How did Washington’s leadership at Valley Forge influence the course of the Revolutionary War?
an american victory
An American Victory
  • Main Idea
  • A strengthened Continental Army, along with European allies, helped the colonists achieve a victory at Yorktown.
  • Reading Focus
  • What Revolutionary War battles took place in the West and South?
  • Why did France and other European nations assist the Americans?
  • What led to the British surrender at Yorktown?
  • How did the Revolution affect American culture?
revolutionary battles in the west and south
Revolutionary Battles in the West and South
  • In 1779 the Americans won some important victories in the area north and west of the Ohio River.
  • In1778 George Rogers Clark led a small force down the Ohio River and captured the British settlements at Fort Kaskaskia and Cahokia on the Mississippi River in present-day Illinois.
  • In 1779 he and his men captured the fort and its commander at Vincennes in the Battle of Vincennes.
revolutionary battles in the west and south1
1778 — British shifted their strategy

Because the British believed that Loyalist sympathies were strongest in the South, they planned a campaign there.

They discovered that Patriots were as strong and determined in Virginia as in New England.

Though many Loyalists lived in the Carolinas and Georgia, they were often reluctant to help.

The British also faced frequent surprise raids by small bands of Patriots.

In March 1781 colonial troops met British commander Charles Cornwallis and his army in a battle at Guilford Court House, North Carolina. Cornwallis won, but British losses were so great that he stopped the campaign.

Revolutionary Battles in the West and South
america s european allies
America’s European Allies
  • Americans wanted recognition as a sovereign nation from Europe.
  • European nations could also provide the Americans with money and supplies to fight the war.
  • France became America’s strongest ally, but help also came from Spain and the Netherlands.
  • France liked seeing its old enemy losing part of its empire.
  • It also hoped that a British defeat in America would help restore French power in Europe.
  • Initially France sent gunpowder, artillery, and muskets to the Patriots.
  • In 1776 Benjamin Franklin went to Paris to seek more help from France.
america s european allies1
America’s European Allies
  • Because of Saratoga victory and Franklin’s diplomacy, France signed two treaties.
  • One formally recognized the United States as a nation.
  • The other treaty promised military help.
    • In 1780 the French government sent a 6,000-soldier army to help the Americans. They were led by a French general, the Count de Rochambeau.
america s european allies2
America’s European Allies
  • Help from Spain
  • Spain joined the war in 1779 as an ally of France.
  • Bernardo de Gálvez was the Spanish governor of Louisiana.
    • Attacked British forts on the Mississippi and along the Gulf Coast in West Florida, which had once belonged to Spain
    • Defeated the British in Baton Rouge, Natchez, Mobile, and Pensacola
america s european allies3
January 1781—Washington and Rochambeau received word that Benedict Arnold had become a traitor.

Arnold was leading British troops in raids on Patriot warehouses in Virginia.

Washington sent Lafayette to stop him.

After giving up his Carolina campaign, General Cornwallis moved into Virginia.

Lafayette’s forces forced the British to the coast.

July 1781—Cornwallis took his army to the Yorktown Peninsula in Chesapeake Bay, built a fort, and waited for British ships to take them to Charleston or New York.

America’s European Allies
victory at yorktown
A siege at Yorktown

Washington saw an opportunity to trap Cornwallis.

French Admiral de Grasse established a blockade in Chesapeake Bay, preventing British ships from rescuing Cornwallis’s men.

Lafayette kept Cornwallis’s army trapped on the peninsula.

Washington and Rochambeau traveled south with a huge French and American army.

Cornwallis, with 7,000 troops, faced a combined French and American army of more than 17,000.

The Battle of Yorktown lasted about three weeks.

Cornwallis surrendered on October 19, 1781.

The war for independence was over.

Victory at Yorktown
victory at yorktown1
Victory at Yorktown
  • The Americans negotiated a peace treaty with Britain; the Treaty of Paris was signed on September 3, 1783.
  • It declared the Mississippi River the western boundary of the United States.
  • Britain formally recognized the United States as an independent nation.
  • Britain agreed to leave its forts in the West.
  • Spain and France made peace with Britain.
  • In return for its help during the war, Spain regained Florida.
  • The United States promised to pay what Americans owed British merchants.
  • Loyalists were allowed to claim property losses.
revolution changes america
Women’s rights

Equality did not include American women.

The words in the Declaration of Independence applied only to white males.

Married women still could not sign contracts or own property.

The law stated that a married woman’s property belonged to her husband.

Revolution Changes America
  • African Americans
  • Many African Americans who had fought for the Patriot cause believed they had earned their freedom.
  • In 1780 Pennsylvania passed a law for the gradual abolition of slavery.
  • During the 1780s the New England states also abolished slavery.
  • After the war, both Virginia and Maryland made it easier to grant freedom to enslaved people. Several southern states also passed laws limiting the slave trade.
revolution changes america1
Impact on Religion

Before the war, many colonies had official churches that everyone paid taxes to support.

New laws endorsed a separation of church and state.

For the Roman Catholic Church, the Revolutionary War led to a certain amount of acceptance. Catholics had often faced prejudice, but the arrival of French Catholic soldiers helped change many people’s attitudes.

Revolution Changes America
  • A New Nation
  • The war left the new nation with some problems.
  • The Revolution had cost a lot of money, and Congress had borrowed from foreign sources and American citizens.
  • Now the money needed to be repaid.
  • Setting up a central government to deal with debt and other national issues was going to be complicated. The Continental Congress would meet again to discuss economic issues and a new system of government.