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Unit VII. Between the Wars

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  1. Unit VII. Between the Wars

  2. E. Militarism& New Ideologies

  3. E. Militarism and New Ideologies 1. The Rise of Fascism a. Widespread economic despair led to the rise of strong dictators *These strong leaders promised solutions and greatness b. Common Ideals of Fascism *Rule of a people by dictatorial gov’t that is very nationalistic and imperialistic -Anticommunist

  4. E. Militarism and New Ideologies (cont’d) 1. The Rise of Fascism (cont’d) c. Mussolini in Italy *Italy was troubled after WWI -Angry over territory -No jobs -Trade slow and taxes high *Benito Mussolini -Took advantage of the unrest -Called themselves the Fascist Party -Promised to: •problems and strengthen Italy •end unemployment and gain more land •stamp out the threat of communism -In 1922 the Fascists used force and terror to gain control of Italy •suspended free elections, free speech, and free press •killed or jailed their enemies •Grasping desperately for order and peace, Italians put the goals of the state above their individuals rights

  5. E. Militarism and New Ideologies (cont’d) 1. The Rise of Fascism (cont’d) d. Hitler in Germany *The Weimar Republic -After WWI, the Kaiser stepped down from power -The new democratic gov’t, the Weimar Republic, was blamed for agreeing to the harsh demands of the Versailles Treaty -It was weak and ineffective •hyperinflation created major economic problems •problems led to the Nazi rise of power *Adolf Hitler -Promised to: •provide jobs and restore German pride •make Germany a superior race •build a new empire, the Third Reich -In 1920, he headed the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi) •His party grew, and in 1933, Hitler was appointed chancellor of Germany

  6. E. Militarism and New Ideologies (cont’d) 1. The Rise of Fascism (cont’d) d. Hitler in Germany (cont’d) *Hitler as Dictator -Hitler created a totalitarian state •ended civil rights •silenced his enemies with force •gov’t control of businesses •employed many people in large public works programs -Germany’s standard of living rose steadily -Rebuilt Germany’s military -Used the Jewish population as a scapegoat•began anti-Semetic policies •used education/media as propaganda to push policies *Anti-Semitism in Germany -At First, policy against the Jews was to force them to leave Germany •boycotts of Jewish businesses •property and businesses ofJews taken and sold to non-Jews -The Nuremburg Laws of 1935 took away the political rights and German citizenship of Jews

  7. Nazi Rise to Power WWI •German war debts •loss of German colonies •wish for revenge Weak Gov’t •doubts about Weimar Republic •political quarrels •wish for strong leadership Economic Problems •hyperinflation •worldwide depression •extreme un- employment Leadership •use of terror and force •idea of a super race •shift of blame to minority groups (Jews)

  8. E. Militarism and New Ideologies (cont’d) 2. Japan: Militarism and Expansion a. Japan had moved toward greater democracy during the 1920’s -Underlying problems within Japanese society crippled the growth of democracy -The Great Depression that began in 1929 made problems worse and gave militarists and extreme nationalists the opening they needed b. Japanese Militarists of the 1930’s -Causes: •loss of foreign markets •unemployment and poverty among peasants •intense nationalism •demand of imperial expansion -Effects: •1931 attack on Chinese province of Manchuria •withdrawal from the League of Nations •anti-western feelings •end of democratic reforms •increased honor for the emperor •renewed imperialism in China (desire to create a Pacific Empire)