Victorian Era. 1832-1901. Presentation by Miguel Baca, William Caulker, Maddie Gibbs, Kylee Kelbaugh, and Ugochi Ndolo. Victorian Era Themes.
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Presentation by Miguel Baca,
William Caulker, Maddie Gibbs,
Kylee Kelbaugh, and Ugochi Ndolo
Reform Act of 1884
As a young boy Dickens’ father, John, was employed as a navy clerk. Charles was five at this age and in school. His family was at first a family with great fortune, until John lost his job and they went into deep debt. They had to keep moving from place to place to hide from the creditors. John was eventually caught and sent to jail.
To support their family Charles’ mother, Elizabeth, started a small school in their basement. This was not making enough money, so Charles was sent to go work in a factory. At fifteen, he started working at a layers office and later became a journalist. Charles later learned that he loved to write and found his vocation.
A CHILD'S HYMNCharles DickensHear my prayer, O heavenly Father,Ere I lay me down to sleep;Bid Thy angels, pure and holy,Round my bed their vigil keep.My sins are heavy, but Thy mercyFar outweighs them, every one;Down before Thy cross I cast them,Trusting in Thy help alone.Keep me through this night of perilUnderneath its boundless shade;Take me to Thy rest, I pray Thee,When my pilgrimage is made.None shall measure out Thy patienceBy the span of human thought;None shall bound the tender merciesWhich Thy Holy Son has bought.Pardon all my past transgressions,Give me strength for days to come;Guide and guard me with Thy blessingTill Thy angels bid me home.
Charles Dickens was one of the most popular writers of his day. His unique sense of humor and humanitarianism repeats throughout all his works. This made him fiercely popular in his time. Over the years he has had his fair share of
praise, and today, he is most
commonly looked at as a serious
literary artist as well as a social
analyst. His image of the Victorian
society as being industrialized and
greedy has earned him a seat among
the great writers of history.
"Tennyson, Alfred, Lord." Britannica Student Library. Encyclopaedia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2010.
On June 2, 1840, Hardy was born in a small village in Dorsetshire, England.
He and his parents lived on the Dorset countryside near Cheddington.
At the age of sixteen, Thomas Hardy became an architect's apprentice.
Later, He moved to London to work independently as an architect.
In 1870, Hardy traveled to St. Juliot in Cornwall to plan a church. There he met Emma Gifford. They fell in love, and were soon married in 1874.
Hardy began writing books, and published his first novel, Desperate Remedies in 1871.
He wrote for twenty-five years after the publishing of Desperate Remedies, and in 1896, Hardy premiered Jude, the Obscure.
Unfortunately for Hardy, the book received numerous negative reviews. Therefore, he discontinued writing novels and resorted to poetry.
I said to Love, "Thou art not young, thou art not fair, No faery darts, no cherub air, Nor swan, nor dove Are thine; but features pitiless, And iron daggers of distress," I said to Love. "Depart then, Love! . . . - Man's race shall end, dost threaten thou? The age to come the man of now Know nothing of? - We fear not such a threat from thee; We are too old in apathy! Mankind shall cease.--So let it be," I said to Love.
I said to Love, "It is not now as in old days When men adored thee and thy ways All else above; Named thee the Boy, the Bright, the One Who spread a heaven beneath the sun," I said to Love. I said to him, "We now know more of thee than then; We were but weak in judgment when, With hearts abrim, We clamoured thee that thou would'st please Inflict on us thine agonies," I said to him.
(Its relation to society in the Victorian Age)
Love and marriage were highly valued during the Victorian Era. This poem is reflecting that idea.
The schoolmaster was leaving the village, and everybody seemed sorry. The miller at Cresscombe lent him the small white tilted cart and horse to carry his goods to the city of his destination, about twenty miles off, such a vehicle proving of quite sufficient size for the departing teacher's effects. For the schoolhouse had been partly furnished by the managers, and the only cumbersome article possessed by the master, in addition to the packing-case of books, was a cottage piano that he had bought at an auction during the year in which he thought of learning instrumental music. But the enthusiasm having waned he had never acquired any skill in playing, and the purchased article had been a perpetual trouble to him ever since in moving house.
Jude, the Obscure
In Jude the Obscure, Thomas Hardy presents the characters Jude Fawley and Sue Bridehead, who violate the conventions of the repressive Victorian society while attempting to follow their natural instincts.
Jude, the Obscure
Jude is an eleven year old orphan that dreams of studying at Christminister’s university. However, Jude is deterred from his dream when he is tricked into marrying a beautiful girl, Arabella. Eventually, their marriage grew bad, and Jude moved to Australia. There he met his cousin Sue. Unfortunately for Jude, he was in love with Sue the same time that she was engaged to Philloston. Later on, after she and Philloston marry, their marriage takes a turn for the worse. Therefore, she leaves him. Jude soon ends up marrying his cousin, Sue. Just like Sue’s previous relationship, she and Jude divorce. Then Jude learns he and Arabella have a child living in Australia.
Sue and Jude both serve as parents to the little boy. Then Jude falls ill, and soon after his recovery, he decides to go back to Christminister’s to live with his family. The family had difficulty finding a place to live. So the children and the parents had to stay in a separate inn. In the morning, one of the children hangs his siblings and himself. Sue then feels guilty and that this was a result of the relationships with Jude. So she goes back to live with Philloston, and Jude remarries Arabella then dies.
Jude, the Obscure’s Relation to the Society in the Victorian Era
The events in this novel were contrary to what obtained in society in the Victorian era. For instance, families and marriages were very stable. In contrast, in this book, the main character, Jude, and his cousin, Sue, had previous marriages that failed. Following that, they got married only to divorce soon afterwards. Later on, Jude found out he had a child with Arabella, his previous wife. His years of ignorance of this occurrence underscored Jude’s nonchalance towards his children. His inconsistency in his marriages as well as breaks in communication with his child were uncharacteristic of men during the Victorian era.
Mayor of Casterbridge
Tess of the D’Urbervilles
The Return of the Native
Hardy impacted society with his writing. His novels and poems provided entertainment for the people in the Victorian Era. They also explained and demonstrated the progress of the time.
Portrait of Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna (1819-76)
One of his more famous poems “My Last Duchess”, was based on an actual event involving a duke of the 16th century. In the poem, he passes by a painting of the duchess, a fair lady, who he was now widowed toward. In his thoughts, he rambles on about her predicaments-“Twas not her husband’s presence only, called that spot of joy into the Duchess’ cheek”,-how she never appreciated his “gift of a nine-hundred-year-old name”and later in the poem even reveals his vengeful crime over her.
Browning took a historical event and morphed it into an interesting (and a bit dark) tale involving a beautiful woman and her temptations along with her husband’s cold response.
FEAR death? -- to feel the fog in my throat,
The mist in my face,
When the snows begin, and the blasts denote
I am nearing the place,
The power of the night, the press of the storm,
The post of the foe;
Where he stands, the Arch Fear in a visible form,
Yet the strong man must go:
For the journey is done and the summit attained,
And the barriers fall.
Tho' a battle's to fight ere the guerdon be gained,
The reward of it all.
I was ever a fighter, so -- one fight more,
The best and the last!
I would hate that death bandaged my eyes, and forebore,
And bade me creep past.
No! let me taste the whole of it, fare like my peers
The heroes of old,
Bear the brunt, in a minute pay glad life's arrears
Of pain, darkness and cold.
For sudden the worst turns the best to the brave,
The black minute's at end,
And the elements' rage, the friend-voices that rave,
Shall dwindle, shall blend,
Shall change, shall become first a peace out of pain,
Then a light, then thy breast,
O thou soul of my soul! I shall clasp thee again,
And with God be the rest.
Written shortly after the death of Elizabeth Barrett Browning
During this period, female authors were not respected and were often criticized for their writing. At that time they still had no rights.
How do I love thee? Let me count the ways.I love thee to the depth and breadth and heightMy soul can reach, when feeling out of sightFor the ends of Being and ideal Grace.I love thee to the level of everyday’sMost quiet need, by sun and candle-light.I love thee freely, as men strive for Right;I love thee purely, as they turn from Praise.I love thee with the passion put to useIn my old griefs, and with my childhood’s faith.I love thee with a love I seemed to loseWith my lost saints,—I love thee with the breath,Smiles, tears, of all my life!—and, if God choose,I shall but love thee better after death.
identity and avoid scrutiny for her sex
This sample of writing shows how Eliot wrote about heroines in rural settings. In this scene Maggie, the main character, is outside near the river and her parents are watching her and talking about how she is always there and so distracted. She is distracted because she is always thinking. Her parents are criticizing her about this because it is out of place and she is always forgetting things. This is how Eliot depicts the station of women in society and the need for change in that area, as many authors did in the time.
“Afore two hours together passes my cunning. An' now you put me i' mind," continued Mrs. Tulliver, rising and going to the window, "I don't know where she is now, an' it's pretty nigh tea-time. Ah, I thought so,--wanderin' up an' down by the water, like a wild thing: She'll tumble in some day."
Mrs. Tulliver rapped the window sharply, beckoned, and shook her head,--a process which she repeated more than once before she returned to her chair.
"You talk o' 'cuteness, Mr. Tulliver," she observed as she sat down, "but I'm sure the child's half an idiot i' some things; for if I send her upstairs to fetch anything, she forgets what she's gone for, an' perhaps 'ull sit down on the floor i' the sunshine an' plait her hair an' sing to herself like a Bedlam creatur', all the while I'm waiting for her downstairs. That niver run i' my family, thank God! no more nor a brown skin as makes her look like a mulatter. I don't like to fly i' the face o' Providence, but it seems hard as I should have but one gell, an' hers”
- Mill on the Floss, George Eliot
Mill on the Floss (1860)
Silas Marner (1861)
(The picture to the left was drawn by Branwell and called The Bronte Sisters.)
There were originally five Brontë sisters, however Maria and Elizabeth (the oldest) died, but were not writers. The three that survived were Charlotte, Emily and Anne. They also had a brother named Patrick Branwell.
They were the daughters of a clergyman.
The writing of Charlotte and Emily were rather dark, but Anne’s was a little lighter and was more like Jane Austen’s.
They all adopted pen names to avoid criticism because of their gender. They were bashed anyway because of the themes of their writing.
Anne and Branwell like to draw and all of the sisters wrote poetry as well as the novels that they are famous for. Charlotte attempted to publish a book of their work.
To the left is a quote that shows the romantic themes of Brontë’s writing. To the right shows the scary and dark aspects of her novel. It was very different from a lot of writing at the time and took a lot if criticism for this.
"The intense horror of nightmare came over me: I tried to draw back my arm, but the hand clung to it, and a most melancholy voice sobbed, 'Let me in - let me in!' 'Who are you?' I asked, struggling, meanwhile, to disengage myself. 'Catherine Linton,' it replied, shiveringly - 'I'm come home: I'd lost my way on the moor!' As it spoke, I discerned, obscurely, a child's face looking through the window."- Emily Bronte, Wuthering Heights, Ch. 3
"If all else perished, and he remained, I should still continue to be; and if all else remained, and he were annihilated, the universe would turn to a mighty stranger: I should not seem a part of it.“
- Emily Bronte, Wuthering Heights, Ch. 9
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