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Victorian Era. 1837 - 1901. ______________________. Victorian Society. Named for __________________ reign Structured society – everyone had his/her own station in life & was happy in it a person’s destiny was pre-determined by 3 factors: 1. ______________ 2. ______________

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victorian era

Victorian Era

1837 - 1901

______________________

victorian society
Victorian Society

Named for __________________ reign

Structured society – everyone had his/her own station in life & was happy in it a person’s destiny was pre-determined by 3 factors:

1. ______________

2. ______________

3. ______________

Queen Victoria’s

Social class

Gender

Birthday (birth order)

victorian society continued
Victorian Society continued …

Structured society -- ________ & _______“behavior of

_____ society”

Era – ________ – appearance not substance

Era – filled w/change and reform:

increased focus on _________________

free ____________ introduced

children’s ____ are introduced

belief that children are to be _____________

Social Class

etiquette

polite

hypocrisy

human rights

Public schooling

toys

nurtured & playful

victorian social classes
Victorian Social Classes
  • __________; the wealthy
  • _____ class (industrialists, bankers, businessmen)
  • _____ classes

Royalty/Titled

Middle

Lower

could change social class
COULD Change Social Class
  • ____________

how many successful industrialists gained __________

even ________

(Gloria Vanderbilt married Duke of Marlborough)

2. ____________ – self-made man or adopted by one w/$

Marriage

power & position.

Americans

Acquired wealth

consequences changing social class
Consequences – Changing Social Class

1. Shunned by ____

2. _______– New Rich (such as Molly Brown fm The Titanic)

1-2 generations before family accepted

peers

Stigma

if lost
If $$ Lost
  • __________________ -- dependent on others’ good will

2. Children -- _______

Retained title & position

Marry $$$

lower class
Lower Class
  • ______; exist to ______ the middle & titled classes.
  • Education – __________ --- ______to work.

Ignored

serve

Little to none

need

middle class
Middle Class
  • ambitious, __________, social climbers
  • ____________ wealthy's practices
  • ______________

-- grammar school

--possibly attend _______ w/grants/scholarships

hard working

Emulated the

Education

University

royalty titled class
Royalty/Titled Class
  • Multiple dwellings – ____________________
  • _______ activities (hunting, riding, _______, parties and balls, _____ etc.)
  • ________ = business – ________________

17/18 – introduced into ____-_ (________ ball)

  • __________ find husband

City and Country Estates

Leisure

operas

travel

Parties

find a husband

society

debutante

2-3 Seasons to

royalty and titled class continued
Royalty and Titled Class continued …

30+ Unmarried Women

_____ – flawed – appearance &/or personality

“Maiden aunt” “dusty ______ books in a library”

__________ – generosity – other family members – support

__________-- fortunate

_______ possibilities –old widower -- ______ for children 

Pitied

useless

Reliant on the

Governess

Marriage

mother

education young women class
EducationYoung Women – Class

Titled

Purpose -- find _______& be good ____ at home – governess & ____ teacher

Subjects of ____:

______, ________, painting, music, French

Entertaining _____, good hostess

__________ – household staff, planning meals & parties 

husband

wife

music

study

Sewing

embroidery

guests

Management

education young men titled class
Education Young Men – Titled Class

______________ (0-4 yrs.)

live-in ________ (5-7 yrs.)

_____________ school (8-16 yrs.)

fee to attend & place secured at birth -- family name/title

University – _______________ (17 –20/21 yrs.)

graduation – ____________________ exams ________________ -- newspaper

“_________” = failure _______ to family

Governess

tutor

Private

Oxford or Cambridge

comprehensive

Scores were published in

Sent down

disgrace

young man s
Young Man’s - ______

Destiny

________– date of birth (birth order)

____________ -- inherit ____ wealth, estates, titles, privileges

-- succeed father

Others -- 2 choices – __________ – respectable; low pay  

Dependent

Oldest

all

army or clergy

victorian period 1832 1901
Victorian Period (1832-1901)

The Victorian era was a time of ___________________. After ________ defeat at Waterloo, in 1815, Britain was not involved in a major European war until _____ began in 1914.

The ______________ of the 18th century greatly expanded during the Victorian period. Over the course of the century, it created new ______, new goods, new ______, and new ______ for tens of thousands of people, climbing through the complicated levels of the middle class. 

History for many Victorians meant ______, and this progress was often measured in ______ success.

peace and economic growth

Napoleon's

WWI

Industrial Revolution

towns

wealth

jobs

progress

material

victorian period 1832 1901 continued
Victorian Period (1832-1901) continued …

At the beginning of Victoria’s reign, her first decade was full of ______: depression, ___________, 1 1/2 million people on ________, working conditions horrific (especially for children), potato ______ caused _____ in Ireland (causing people to emigrate), ______ (2 toilets to every 250 people), filthy and polluted cities (Thames River), ______ problems.

trouble

unemployment

poor relief

famine

blight

slums

sewage

victorian period 1832 1901 continued1
Victorian Period (1832-1901) continued …

Movement for ______: violence broke out at massive political rallies to ______ government policies that kept food ________ high and deprived working class males of the ____ and __________ in Parliament. Many women approached social reform as a _____ and _______ duty. One of these women was ______________, a nurse, who became an ____________ on public health. She observed that __________ could save lives. During the ________________, Nightingale worked with soldiers and observed that inadequate food, clothing, and ______________________ -- more than the wounds from fighting – contributed to their disastrous ________________ rate.

reform

protest

prices

vote

representation

moral

spiritual

Florence Nightingale

authority

sanitation

Crimean War

unsanitary conditions

mortality

victorian period 1832 1901 continued2
Victorian Period (1832-1901) continued …

Still in the midst of all this, most Victorians felt that things were ______ than ever in the past and that things would continue to _________ in the future. Some truth to this: steady improvement in ____________ of all classes throughout Victorian era, price of________ dropped mid-century (trade w/other countries), ____ improved as meat, fruit, margarine (Victorian invention) began to appear regularly in middle class homes. Factories and railroads made goods and services affordable.

better

improve

Material condition

food

diet

victorian period 1832 1901 continued3
Victorian Period (1832-1901) continued …

Political reforms gave vote to almost all ______ by last decades of century.

Organized political action by ______ (Victorian invention), women couldn’t vote until 1928, but began being involved to push for vote with Victorian era. 

males

women

victorian period 1832 1901 continued4
Victorian Period (1832-1901) continued …

A series of _________ limited ________and reduced their work day to ___ hours with 1/2 holiday on Saturday.

State supported schools established in 1870, made compulsory in 1880, and free in 1891. In 1859, ____ of couples getting married could not write their names on marriage certificates. By 1900, more than ____ could.

Many Victorians saw themselves progressing ______ and ________ as well as materially. The middle class was mostly obsessed with _______ or decorum: “prudery.” 

Factory Acts

child labor

10

40%

90%

morally

spiritually

gentility

victorian period 1832 1901 continued5
Victorian Period (1832-1901) continued …

Lots covered up: editors deleted or obscured words and episodes that might make young person blush. ___________ for sex, birth, death. People arrested for distributing information about _____ . Seduced or ________ women (not men) judged as “fallen” and ___________.

Euphemism

adulterous

STDs

ostracized

victorian period 1832 1901 continued6
Victorian Period (1832-1901) continued …

Uneasy about giving ____________ to central government. _____________ father of middle class households. Women subject to ____________ (expected to marry and create refuge for family). Women who didn’t marry had few occupations open to them. If working class, could be ____________ in affluent home; if middle class, could be __________ or teacher.

authority

Autocratic

male authority

servant

governess

victorian period 1832 1901 continued7
Victorian Period (1832-1901) continued …

Excesses, cruelties, hypocrisies of all ___________ obvious even to those living, but the idea of decorum ingrained in their idea of progress.

_______ and _________ intended to control the wildness and __________ actions that Victorians associated with the political revolutions of 18th century.

repressions

Prudery

Social order

uninhibited

victorian period 1832 1901 continued8
Victorian Period (1832-1901) continued …

Believed that life could and would be improved if it steadily became more refined, more rationally organized, better policies (therefore, safer). 

_____________: Humans began to understand the earth, its creatures, its natural laws. Geologists, biologists (__________). Industrialization made use of _________, especially chemistry, and technology.

Intellectual Progress

Darwin

science

victorian period 1832 1901 continued9
Victorian Period (1832-1901) continued …

Victorian and Romantic literature is ______: similar ________ used, similar _______, idea of poet being ________________. Even more so believed their writing could _________ how people acted in their moral, social, and even political lives by changing their awareness of what was happening to themselves and in the world around them.

genre

similar

special seer/sage

topics

change

victorian period 1832 1901 continued10
Victorian Period (1832-1901) continued …

Victorian writers asked ___________ and raised _________.

5 main questions:

1) Does material comfort fully satisfy human needs?

2) Is the achievement of those material comforts worth the exploitation of the earth?

3) Are our codes of decorum and authority acceptable or are they hypocritical?

4) Do our materialistic ideas overlook the spirit or soul that makes life beautiful and just?

5) Is there really a coherence in history and nature? 

questions

doubts

victorian period 1832 1901 continued11
Victorian Period (1832-1901) continued …

____________ = most popular and most important figure of Victorian era. Epitome of Victorian___________. Rose through ___________ background through own talents and energy to become famous and wealthy. Increased affluence and ____________ of people, widened his reading ______________, and improved ___________ and _____________, made book publishing big business. Victorian conviction that things work out well for ____________ people; most memorable scenes, however, show decent people neglected, abused, and exploited. Dickens ___________ hollowness, glitter, superficiality, and excesses of Victorian affluence. <-- common theme in Victorian literature. Also raised questions about the cost of progress: smog!

Charles Dickens

success

impoverished

literacy

audience

printing

distribution

decent

attacked

victorian period 1832 1901 continued12
Victorian Period (1832-1901) continued …

Materialism, secularism, ___________, and sheer _______ that accompanied Victorian progress led some writers (such as Tennyson) to wonder if their culture was really advancing by any measure.

Tennyson, early Victorian writers: belief in Transcendental power. Highest purpose of poet, of any writer, was to make readers aware of the ____________ between earth and ________, body and _________, material and ________. (____________ of Romantic belief of human mind interacting with nature) 

vulgarity

waste

connection

heaven

soul

ideal

Extension

victorian period 1832 1901 continued13
Victorian Period (1832-1901) continued …

Later Victorian writers found it difficult to believe in an _______________ and _________ that made sense of material and human existence. Some thought it unnecessary. Others felt saddened by what they saw as ____________from the world (Matthew Arnold). Skepticism and denial.

Two most important and consistent purposes or effects of Victorian literature: 1) make readers _____________ if reality was really like the literature 2) demonstrate that no matter how ________________ reality seemed to be, writer and reader could make pleasing _____________ from it. 

infinite power

order

God’s withdrawal

hope or wonder

bleak and disorderly

order

slide30
ART

The _________________ challenged artistic authority. This group of artists embraced the _________ while ____________ “conventionalities and feeble reminiscences from the Old Masters.” Dissatisfied with Victorian _________, a group of seven young men modeled their work after _________ painters (those who came before _______) whom they believed had a more _________ vision.

Pre-Rafaelite Brotherhood

ordinary

rejecting

complacency

medieval

Rafael

natural

victorian drama from comic relief to realism
VICTORIAN DRAMA: FROM COMIC RELIEF TO REALISM

Theatre in the early part of Victorian’s reign provided little to ___________ anyone. Comedy must have the license to _____________, to ___________, to look under the bed, and to _______. However, Victoria’s England was marked by prudery, good taste, _____________ of natural feelings, high mindedness, and official __________________. The operettas of William S. Gilbert (1875), written to the music of Arthur Sullivan, provided some delightful ______________. Seen today as charming, they were considered ______________ ridicule of the law, the navy, the world of aesthetes and the ____________. These operettas influenced future playwrights such as _____________ and ______________, both of whom moved forward toward _____________.

amuse

explore

expose

ridicule

repression

censorship

entertainment

irreverent

aristocracy

Oscar Wilde

George Bernard Shaw

Realism