Victorian Era. 1837 - 1901. ______________________. Victorian Society. Named for __________________ reign Structured society – everyone had his/her own station in life & was happy in it a person’s destiny was pre-determined by 3 factors: 1. ______________ 2. ______________
1837 - 1901
Named for __________________ reign
Structured society – everyone had his/her own station in life & was happy in it a person’s destiny was pre-determined by 3 factors:
Birthday (birth order)
Structured society -- ________ & _______“behavior of
Era – ________ – appearance not substance
Era – filled w/change and reform:
increased focus on _________________
free ____________ introduced
children’s ____ are introduced
belief that children are to be _____________
nurtured & playful
how many successful industrialists gained __________
(Gloria Vanderbilt married Duke of Marlborough)
2. ____________ – self-made man or adopted by one w/$
power & position.
1. Shunned by ____
2. _______– New Rich (such as Molly Brown fm The Titanic)
1-2 generations before family accepted
2. Children -- _______
Retained title & position
Little to none
-- grammar school
--possibly attend _______ w/grants/scholarships
17/18 – introduced into ____-_ (________ ball)
City and Country Estates
find a husband
2-3 Seasons to
30+ Unmarried Women
_____ – flawed – appearance &/or personality
“Maiden aunt” “dusty ______ books in a library”
__________ – generosity – other family members – support
_______ possibilities –old widower -- ______ for children
Reliant on the
Purpose -- find _______& be good ____ at home – governess & ____ teacher
Subjects of ____:
______, ________, painting, music, French
Entertaining _____, good hostess
__________ – household staff, planning meals & parties
______________ (0-4 yrs.)
live-in ________ (5-7 yrs.)
_____________ school (8-16 yrs.)
fee to attend & place secured at birth -- family name/title
University – _______________ (17 –20/21 yrs.)
graduation – ____________________ exams ________________ -- newspaper
“_________” = failure _______ to family
Oxford or Cambridge
Scores were published in
________– date of birth (birth order)
____________ -- inherit ____ wealth, estates, titles, privileges
-- succeed father
Others -- 2 choices – __________ – respectable; low pay
army or clergy
The Victorian era was a time of ___________________. After ________ defeat at Waterloo, in 1815, Britain was not involved in a major European war until _____ began in 1914.
The ______________ of the 18th century greatly expanded during the Victorian period. Over the course of the century, it created new ______, new goods, new ______, and new ______ for tens of thousands of people, climbing through the complicated levels of the middle class.
History for many Victorians meant ______, and this progress was often measured in ______ success.
peace and economic growth
At the beginning of Victoria’s reign, her first decade was full of ______: depression, ___________, 1 1/2 million people on ________, working conditions horrific (especially for children), potato ______ caused _____ in Ireland (causing people to emigrate), ______ (2 toilets to every 250 people), filthy and polluted cities (Thames River), ______ problems.
Movement for ______: violence broke out at massive political rallies to ______ government policies that kept food ________ high and deprived working class males of the ____ and __________ in Parliament. Many women approached social reform as a _____ and _______ duty. One of these women was ______________, a nurse, who became an ____________ on public health. She observed that __________ could save lives. During the ________________, Nightingale worked with soldiers and observed that inadequate food, clothing, and ______________________ -- more than the wounds from fighting – contributed to their disastrous ________________ rate.
Still in the midst of all this, most Victorians felt that things were ______ than ever in the past and that things would continue to _________ in the future. Some truth to this: steady improvement in ____________ of all classes throughout Victorian era, price of________ dropped mid-century (trade w/other countries), ____ improved as meat, fruit, margarine (Victorian invention) began to appear regularly in middle class homes. Factories and railroads made goods and services affordable.
Political reforms gave vote to almost all ______ by last decades of century.
Organized political action by ______ (Victorian invention), women couldn’t vote until 1928, but began being involved to push for vote with Victorian era.
A series of _________ limited ________and reduced their work day to ___ hours with 1/2 holiday on Saturday.
State supported schools established in 1870, made compulsory in 1880, and free in 1891. In 1859, ____ of couples getting married could not write their names on marriage certificates. By 1900, more than ____ could.
Many Victorians saw themselves progressing ______ and ________ as well as materially. The middle class was mostly obsessed with _______ or decorum: “prudery.”
Lots covered up: editors deleted or obscured words and episodes that might make young person blush. ___________ for sex, birth, death. People arrested for distributing information about _____ . Seduced or ________ women (not men) judged as “fallen” and ___________.
Uneasy about giving ____________ to central government. _____________ father of middle class households. Women subject to ____________ (expected to marry and create refuge for family). Women who didn’t marry had few occupations open to them. If working class, could be ____________ in affluent home; if middle class, could be __________ or teacher.
Excesses, cruelties, hypocrisies of all ___________ obvious even to those living, but the idea of decorum ingrained in their idea of progress.
_______ and _________ intended to control the wildness and __________ actions that Victorians associated with the political revolutions of 18th century.
Believed that life could and would be improved if it steadily became more refined, more rationally organized, better policies (therefore, safer).
_____________: Humans began to understand the earth, its creatures, its natural laws. Geologists, biologists (__________). Industrialization made use of _________, especially chemistry, and technology.
Victorian and Romantic literature is ______: similar ________ used, similar _______, idea of poet being ________________. Even more so believed their writing could _________ how people acted in their moral, social, and even political lives by changing their awareness of what was happening to themselves and in the world around them.
Victorian writers asked ___________ and raised _________.
5 main questions:
1) Does material comfort fully satisfy human needs?
2) Is the achievement of those material comforts worth the exploitation of the earth?
3) Are our codes of decorum and authority acceptable or are they hypocritical?
4) Do our materialistic ideas overlook the spirit or soul that makes life beautiful and just?
5) Is there really a coherence in history and nature?
____________ = most popular and most important figure of Victorian era. Epitome of Victorian___________. Rose through ___________ background through own talents and energy to become famous and wealthy. Increased affluence and ____________ of people, widened his reading ______________, and improved ___________ and _____________, made book publishing big business. Victorian conviction that things work out well for ____________ people; most memorable scenes, however, show decent people neglected, abused, and exploited. Dickens ___________ hollowness, glitter, superficiality, and excesses of Victorian affluence. <-- common theme in Victorian literature. Also raised questions about the cost of progress: smog!
Materialism, secularism, ___________, and sheer _______ that accompanied Victorian progress led some writers (such as Tennyson) to wonder if their culture was really advancing by any measure.
Tennyson, early Victorian writers: belief in Transcendental power. Highest purpose of poet, of any writer, was to make readers aware of the ____________ between earth and ________, body and _________, material and ________. (____________ of Romantic belief of human mind interacting with nature)
Later Victorian writers found it difficult to believe in an _______________ and _________ that made sense of material and human existence. Some thought it unnecessary. Others felt saddened by what they saw as ____________from the world (Matthew Arnold). Skepticism and denial.
Two most important and consistent purposes or effects of Victorian literature: 1) make readers _____________ if reality was really like the literature 2) demonstrate that no matter how ________________ reality seemed to be, writer and reader could make pleasing _____________ from it.
hope or wonder
bleak and disorderly
The _________________ challenged artistic authority. This group of artists embraced the _________ while ____________ “conventionalities and feeble reminiscences from the Old Masters.” Dissatisfied with Victorian _________, a group of seven young men modeled their work after _________ painters (those who came before _______) whom they believed had a more _________ vision.
Theatre in the early part of Victorian’s reign provided little to ___________ anyone. Comedy must have the license to _____________, to ___________, to look under the bed, and to _______. However, Victoria’s England was marked by prudery, good taste, _____________ of natural feelings, high mindedness, and official __________________. The operettas of William S. Gilbert (1875), written to the music of Arthur Sullivan, provided some delightful ______________. Seen today as charming, they were considered ______________ ridicule of the law, the navy, the world of aesthetes and the ____________. These operettas influenced future playwrights such as _____________ and ______________, both of whom moved forward toward _____________.
George Bernard Shaw