Speed Skating Training Guide
Events Offered • 100 Meter • 300 Meter • 500 Meter • 800 Meter
Uniforms • All speed skaters will wear long-sleeved uniforms, knee pads, shin guards, and cut resistant throat protectors, cut resistant and no protrusions, gloves/mittens of a protective nature, and an approved safety helmet with a hard shell and chin strap. • Helmet selection should be made with the help of a knowledgeable speed skating coach or stake shop employee • Elbow pads and Kevlar throat/neck protector are optional
Uniforms • Skates: speed skaters should wear speed skates. Figure skates are not allowed • All competitors must wear competition bibs for both time trial and final races
Equipment • Competition equipment, such as skates, must pass all appropriate safety guidelines. All clothing should be made of material conducive to freedom of movement. Athletes are encouraged to bring warm clothing for after the competition.
General Rules • Races will be conducted on a 111M Oval short track • Events range from 25M to 3000M • Safety mats will be present during all training and competition periods • Start and finish lines will be made clear before the events
General Rules • Athletes may enter three events if one is the 800 meter race. • A start pistol shall be used to begin each race. False starts will require a restart. • All competitors shall race with both skates behind the start line. • A speed skater shall finish the race when the blade of one of his/her skates crosses the finish line after completing the appropriate number of laps in the race.
General Rules and Modifications • The starter shall position her/himself in front of the start line so that he/she is clearly visible and distinguishable as the starter to all competitors starting the race. • The starter shall give each competitor a chance to do his/her best by: • Giving the competitors ample time to settle down and assume a balanced position after taking their marks. • Starting the sequence over if any competitor is off-balance. • Not holding the competitors too long after the set signal. • Always using the starting commands and signals as well as the correct signals for hearing impaired athletes.
General Rules and Modifications • Skaters making two false starts shall be disqualified. • There will be no more than 4 competitors on the track competing at the same time. • There shall be exactly two competitors on the track competing at the same time unless there is an odd number of competitors in a particular division, then three competitors shall compete at the same time during one heat within that division.
General Rules and Modifications • When a skater has completed their laps and crosses the finish line, they need to return to the center of the rink. • When there is an even number of competitors within a division, the order of start shall be determined by a random draw of the competitor names. • The first and second names drawn will be the first pair of skaters to come in that division, the third and fourth names to be drawn will be the second pair, and so on until all names are drawn. • The skaters whose names were drawn on even numbered draws shall be assigned the starting position toward the end of the line furthest from the rink barrier, on the inside of the track.
Disqualification • When overtaking, the responsibility for any obstruction or collision shall be upon the skater overtaking, provided that the skater being overtaken does not act improperly. • A skater shall not deliberately impede or push another competitor with any part of his/her body, thereby gaining an advantage. • Any competitor who unnecessarily slows down, thereby causing another competitor to slow up or collide, shall be disqualified. • A skater who permits himself/herself to receive physical assistance during a race shall be disqualified. • A disqualification must be announced at the end of each heat to the competitor, team leader, or coach and over the public address system for the benefit of the spectators.
Terms • Blocks- markers used to define track boundaries both short track and long track • Fartlek- Swedish term for "speed play“ • Guards- Rubber, leather or plastic protective covering for skate blades, Used to protect the skate blade • when walking to and from the ice surface • Offset- the placement of the left blade on short track skates to the left to accommodate turning (cornering) • on the short track
Terms Cont. • Ricochets- plyometric exercise involving rapid rate of leg and foot movements with minimal vertical and horizontal distance allowing for greater rate of execution • Twists- plyometric exercise involving emphasis on the torquing/lateral movement of the torso without involvement of the shoulders and arms • Undamped Landing- plyometric landing without delay( no additional knee flexion for cushioning landing results in higher power and force
Speed Skating Technique/Tips • Get Low. Try for a 90 degree knee bend. Over longer distances, you won't be able to maintain this, but bend them as much as you can. • Keep your weight centered and off of your toes. Push through the center of the frames. As an exercise, think about pushing through the heels at the end of the stroke. Make your heel-wheel the last wheel to leave the pavement at the end of the stroke. • Push to the side, not to the back. Push as laterally as you can. Your foot will go to the back a little bit, but if you think "push straight to the side" you'll end up with a more efficient push. • Cross-overs are pretty important. Try to push as radially (laterally) as you can with the foot on the inside of the turn. Lean in to the turn.
Explosivity • Explosivity is not so much about strength as it is about the ability to apply whatever strength one has in the shortest burst of time. • Explosivityis this: The athlete crouches and, in doing so, lengthens certain foot, leg, hip, back and arm muscles, storing energy when those muscles are stretched. By contracting those muscles in rapid sequence, the athlete exerts a force that accelerates the body upward. The faster the contraction, the higher the jump.
Dry Training • The objectives for summer dry training are to: • improve skating performance by developing good technique • build strength • build endurance • develop longer strides in order to cut strokes per lap • establish good skating tempo • learn how to skate a track • During sessions work on middle and long distance sprints. Use natural resistance exercises and work on body position, weight transfer, arm swing and leg thrust. We have a number of simulated races with the tempo and duration of the exercises controlled and timed.
Dry Training continued.. • Workouts are relatively easy at the start and become more difficult through the summer • You are asked only to do what you can and no more. Do not try to keep up if you are uncomfortable or in pain and rest when you need to. • Stay loose with a lot of stretching before and after a workout. If you feel like jogging, riding a bike, roller blading, etc. on your own, OK -- but do not overdo. A lot of rest between sessions is important.
4 Drills to Develop Push • #1 • Get in the skating position. Put one foot out as if stroking to the side and put all of your weight over the support foot. • It is important that you line up your head, chest, hip, knee and ankle and keep your shoulders square and your head up. • Shift your weight from one leg to the other while remaining in the skating position. • Once you master this wearing your shoes, practice on skates. • In order to weight-shift properly, you must be able to balance on each leg in the skating position. #2 • Stand (later skate) on one foot with your ankle in an upright and locked position. Keep your support knee bent and balance your weight over your foot. • Position your other foot behind the support leg. (Initially, you can use it for balance by dragging your toe behind on the ground.) Keep your shoulders square and your arms close to your body to maintain balance. • The next two drills are done skating on a long straightaway.
4 Drills to Develop Push • #3 Boot Tap • Skate in a straight line. • Push one leg to the side, then the other. • Touch boots together when the skates come back to the center. #4 Toe Taps -This is the same as Boot Taps, except that you tap the toe of your return skate on the support leg after each stroke. This forces you to shift all your weight off the return leg. • When you master these drills, do them on your outside edges. This simulates actual straightaway strokes. • The most advanced weight-shift drill is done in combination with an explosive jump from one leg to the other while skating down the straightaway. It is only for very experienced skaters.