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ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction. 19 th – 23 rd June 2006 Nairobi, Kenya. Module 4: Biomass (Traditional & Improved). Waeni Kithyoma. Overview. Traditional Biomass Examples and application Benefits Drawbacks

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adb finesse training course on renewable energy energy efficiency for poverty reduction

ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction

19th – 23rd June 2006

Nairobi, Kenya

overview
Overview
  • Traditional Biomass
    • Examples and application
    • Benefits
    • Drawbacks
  • Improved Biomass Technologies
    • Examples and application
    • Status of improved cookstoves dissemination
    • Benefits of improved biomass technologies
    • Prospects of improved biomass technologies
  • Case studies demonstrating socio-economic impact of improved cookstoves
three categories
Three Categories

TBTs

  • Traditional Biomass Energy Technologies (TBTs)
    • Inefficient use of wood, charcoal, leaves, agricultural residues, animal/human waste & urban waste
  • Improved Biomass Energy Technologies (IBTs)
    • Improved and efficient technologies for direct combustion of biomass such as improved cooking/heating stoves and improved biofuel kilns
  • Modern Biomass Energy Technologies (MBTs) – Next Module
    • Conversion of biomass energy to advanced fuels/forms namely liquid fuels, gas and electricity

IBTs

MBTs

why is biomass energy important
Why is Biomass Energy Important?

Biomass Supply as % of Total Primary Energy Supply

Source: IEA, 2004

past and projected final biomass consumption in relation to total energy use 2002 and 2020
Past and Projected Final Biomass Consumption in Relation to Total Energy Use, 2002 and 2020

Source: IEA, 2004a; IEA, 2004c

traditional biomass
Traditional Biomass
  • Includes fuelwood, agricultural residues and animal/human waste
  • Resources are used inefficiently
  • Meets energy needs of significant proportion of population – particularly rural poor
traditional biomass9
Traditional Biomass
  • Benefits
    • Readily available
    • Low cost
    • Does not require processing before use
    • In contrast to other renewables, can be stored - reduces problem of intermittency
  • Significant drawbacks
    • Indoor air pollution – health problems
    • Environmental degradation
    • Social burden on women and children
traditional biomass10
Traditional Biomass
  • Challenges
    • Better data
    • Ensuring biomass is sourced from sustainable biomass resources
    • More rapid substitution with improved & modern biomass energy technologies and other energy alternatives
improved biomass
Improved Biomass
  • Improved Biomass Energy Technologies
    • Improved and efficient technologies for direct combustion of biomass such as efficient stoves, charcoal kilns and dryers as well as direct combustion in boilers (e.g. tea factories & forest industries)
improved biomass12
Improved Biomass
  • Benefits of Improved Biomass Technologies
    • Reduction in heat loss
    • Decrease in indoor air pollution -> reduction in respiratory health problems associated with smoke emission
    • Increased combustion efficiency -> reduced fuel consumption
    • Alleviation of burden (women & children) of fuel collection
    • Production & dissemination of improved biomass technologies create employment and income generating opportunities
improved cooking heating stoves
Improved Cooking & Heating Stoves
  • Mainly used for cooking. Other uses include space heating, crop curing and drying
  • Costs range from US$ 2 to U$ 10
  • Are locally assembled and manufactured
  • Available in most African countries
slide14
A mini survey undertaken in Kenya (Jan 06) indicated that improved cookstoves were the most commonly used small-scale renewable energy technologies among the poor
improved charcoal kenya ceramic jiko kcj
Improved Charcoal Kenya Ceramic Jiko (KCJ)
  • One of the most successful stove projects in Africa
  • In use in over 50% of urban households in Kenya (16% of rural homes) - 2.6 million stoves in use in Kenya alone (cumulative production now over 15 million)
  • Made of metal cladding with a wide base and a ceramic liner (safer to use - cooler on the outside)
  • Fully self-sustaining using locally produced materials and skills – generated jobs & new enterprises
  • Reduces charcoal consumption by 30-50%
  • KCJ in use in Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi, Ethiopia, Malawi, Sudan, Rwanda, Burundi & Senegal
  • Being introduced in Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, Ghana and Madagascar
kenya ceramic jiko kcj lessons learned
Kenya Ceramic Jiko (KCJ) - Lessons Learned
  • Think long-term: Modest but long-term funding: Initial donor investment modest - $250,000 but provided over a long-period (5 years)
  • Work with locals: Key players were serious and enthusiastic local and regional institutions and experts who made long-term commitments
  • Involve dynamic informal & small enterprise sector: Heavy involvement of existing informal sector and small & micro-enterprises in manufacture and distribution of KCJ - “piggy-back” approach which reduced dissemination & marketing costs
kenya ceramic jiko kcj lessons learned18
Kenya Ceramic Jiko (KCJ) - Lessons Learned
  • “Smart” subsidies: Implicit subsidy - First set expensive stoves were bought by high income groups - high margins brought in new producers and lowered prices - KCJ now costs US$ 2.00.
  • Be wary of “early” marketing: Limited marketing effort - primarily word of mouth. Marketing can generate artificial short-term demand (tempting for short-term 2 year project)
prospects improved biomass
Prospects: Improved Biomass
  • Significant dissemination of improved biomass energy technologies (IBTs) in Africa but …
  • Potential for wider dissemination of IBTs is vast – almost every country in Africa has in place an improved cookstove programme which could be significantly expanded.
  • There are examples of successful development of improved biofuel stoves in industrialised countries - a notable example being Austria which led to establishment of new & vibrant wood pellets industry
  • A successful improved biomass program can set the stage for a move towards modern biomass options. For example, efficient wood-fired boilers in forest industries can eventually be used for cogeneration.
slide20
Biomass Use – Expanding Use of Improved Biomass Options & Setting Stage for Moving to Modern Biomass Options

Source: IEA, 2004; UNDP, 2003; Jingjing et al, 2001; Lefevre et al, 1997; Coelho et al, 2003; IEA, 2002