Energy Alternatives CDAE-06 Renewable Intro Gary Flomenhoft http://www.uvm.edu/~gflomenh/CDAE06/
WORLD ENERGY Fossil Fuel: 75.9% Nuclear: 5.7% Renewable: 18.4%
DIRECT-GAIN • Large south facing windows that let in the sunlight. • Thermal mass is used to absorb the radiation. • At night the absorbed heat is radiated back into the living space.
Photoelectric Effect A picture of an typical silicon PV cell Now a short video: http://www.eere.energy.gov/solar/multimedia.html
CZOCHRALSKI PROCESS • This is the process of creating an ingot. • A small single silicon rod (seed) is placed in an inert gas at high temps. • When the seed is rotated up and out silicon adheres to it to form an ingot.
CELLS -> MODULES • Wafers 5 inches square and .012 inches thick are sliced from the ingot. • They are then processed into cells and soldered together to achieve the desired voltage. • Cells arrayed in series are called modules.
MANUFACTURERS • Sharp Electronics Corporation • Sanyo • bp Solar • Shell • Sunwise • Uni-Solar • AstroPower
POLYCRYSTALLINE SOLAR PANELS “Energy of the Future”
Thin Film History • Developed in 1980 • Applied to calculators, watches and other portable low-watt appliances • Expanded to larger appliances as efficiency rate increased
Cost by Brand • Unisolar 21 watt= $153.00 • Shell 20 watt= $198.00 • Isofoton 165 watt= $650.00 -research shows that on average thin cell costs $5 per watt
CDAE 170 Solar Building Strategies PV system design Dec. 1, 2003 Gary Flomenhoft BSME, MAPP, CEE Research Associate Gund Institute, SNR
Biomass: In Vermont VT Energy Consumption Sources • Nuclear 36% • System 14% • Hydro Quebec 35% • Oil 2% • Gas 1% • Other Renewable 5% • Small Hydro 7% Since 1984, Vermont has met all increase in energy demands(a total of 125 Mw) by renewable in-state sources: -40 Mw Small Hydro -73 Mw McNeil/Rygate (Biomass Plants) -6 Mw Searsburg Wind Farm EPA Landfill Incentive Program http://www.epa.gov/lmop/
Kinds of Biomass-traditional • Trees- Wood has been used as a source of energy throughout human history and today the most commonly used form or biomass. Today there are still many people in third world countries using it to provide heat and energy. There are also ‘purpose grown’ tree farms which are specifically grown to produce wood for energy in larger developed countries.
More traditional Biomass types • Straw is used similarly too wood, it is burned and used to make heat and energy • Animal Dung- Poop is often used as a source of heat and energy
More non-traditional Biomass • Landfill gas- The gas emitted from landfills is very rich in methane, it is collected and used to generate power in small scale power plants.
Gasohol • Ethanol Alcohol generated by fermenting sugar cane or corn is combined with gas and used to power cars…mmm…tasty gasohol.
Biodiesel Biodiesel is made from: • vegetable oil • alcohol (20-30%) • sodium/potassium hydroxide (2-3%)
The total amount of electricity that could potentially be generated from wind in the United States has been estimated at 10,777 billion kWh annually—three times the electricity generated in the U.S. today.