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BR. Before Reading. 1. Out-of-class Research Project. 2. Listen and Answer. 3. Background Information. Clone. Genetic Engineering. Narcissus. Prometheus. Julius Robert Oppenheimer. Hiroshima. Nagasaki. BR ( ORP ). Out-of-class Research Project.

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    1. BR Before Reading 1. Out-of-class Research Project 2. Listen and Answer 3. Background Information Clone Genetic Engineering Narcissus Prometheus Julius Robert Oppenheimer Hiroshima Nagasaki

    2. BR( ORP) Out-of-class Research Project The research project should be assigned at the end of the previous unit. Students form groups to use library resources and Internet resources to get answers to the following questions. 1. What is cloning? 2. Give a brief history of the scientific research into cloning. 3. What are the major pros and cons of human cloning? 4. During your research, what new vocabulary items have you come across that are related to cloning?

    3. BR( LA1) Listen and Answer Listen to the interview and answer the following questions according to Prof. Greely. 1. What does Prof. Greely think of human cloning? We must distinguish different types of human cloning. Some are justified; others are not. 2. What is the greatest problem with human reproductive cloning? Safety. ■

    4. BR( LA2) Listen and Answer Listen to the interview and answer the following questions according to Prof. Greely. 3. What are the problems with a human clone? There may be cell changes that are initially invisible and only show themselves as the clone ages. There’s also a problem with the ends of chromosomes in cells, which shorten until the cells can no longer reproduce.

    5. BR(LA3) Listen and Answer Listen to the interview and answer the following questions according to Prof. Greely. 4. In what situations can we use cloning? Firstly, helping parents who are having difficulty having children would be one area. Secondly, parents want to create a new child to be a bone marrow donor for an older sick child. Another situation is cloning a child who has accidentally died. 5. What about cloning a Hitler or Michael Jordan? We can dismiss those as bad or even silly applications.

    6. BR(LA4) Listen and Answer Listen to the interview and answer the following questions according to Prof. Greely. 6. Is there anything else about the future of human cloning? Even if cloning humans were safe and we as a society had decided it was right and proper for reproductive purposes, I don’t think we’d see a lot of clones. The old-fashioned way of making babies has a lot going for it: It’s easy, traditional, well understood, and occasionally even pleasant.

    7. BR( LA5) Listen and Answer Listen to the interview and answer the following questions according to Prof. Greely. ■

    8. BR(C 1) Clone Clone is a group of organisms or cells that are genetically identical, having been produced from one parent by asexual reproduction. The individual organisms or cells are precise copies of the parent and genetically identical to it. Clones are found naturally among single-celled organisms (such as bacteria), a few invertebrates (such as corals), and some asexually reproducing plants (as in the production of runners by a strawberry plant). In agriculture, plant cloning can be used to advantage, in that individuals with desirable properties, such as pest-resistance or high growth rates, can be replicated exactly without the unpredictable results associated with sexual reproduction. ■

    9. BR( C 2 ) Clone Artificial cloning of animals and cells can be achieved by teasing apart the cells of the early embryo. Similarly, cells capable of growing into mature plants can be obtained from plant growth-regions (meristems 分生组织). In genetic engineering cloning refers to the copying of DNA molecules. http:// www.clonecentral.com http:// www.znet.com/danforth

    10. BR(C3) Clone

    11. BR(C4) Bacterial

    12. BR(C5) Invertebrates

    13. BR(C6) Corals

    14. BR(C7) StrawberryPlant

    15. BR(C8) Embryo

    16. BR(C9) DNA

    17. BR( GE1) GeneticEngineering Genetic engineering is the deliberate modification of the genetic make-up (genome) of an organism by manipulation of its DNA. Genetic engineering techniques include cell fusion and the use of recombinant DNA (rDNA). Since the late 1960s these techniques have held out the most exciting promise for biotechnology. ■

    18. BR( GE2) GeneticEngineering In such a new field controversy inevitably abounds. Worries concerning release of genetically novel bacteria into the environment, or the possible manipulation of human embryos, have led to the setting up in the USA of the Genetic Manipulation Advisory Group (GMAG). Legislation governing genetic research has also been passed in several other countries.

    19. BR( Narcissus ) Narcissus In Greek mythology, Narcissus is a beautiful youth who spurned (拒绝) the love of the nymph Echo and in punishment was made to fall in love with his own reflection; he pined away gazing at himself in a pool and at his death was changed into the flower bearing his name narcissus. ■

    20. BR( Prometheus ) Prometheus Listen to the passage and fill in the blanks with the missing words. Prometheus is, in Greek mythology, a who made the first man from clay and stole from the gods to give to mankind. In for the theft, Zeus Prometheus to a rock, where his liver was eaten every day by an , only to grow again every night. Hercules eventually him. Prometheus has been seen as a symbol of , rebellion against tyranny, and of imagination. _____ Titan ___ fire _______ chained revenge _______ eagle _____ rescued _______ freedom _______ creative _______ ■

    21. BR( JRO1) Julius Robert Oppenheimer Oppenheimer, (Julius) Robert (1904-1967) US physicist. Click the words in blue to get more information!

    22. BR( JRO2) Julius Robert Oppenheimer Julius Robert Oppenheimer (1904~1967) was a US physicist. He was appointed in 1942 as Director of the Manhattan Project, the secret project to develop the atomic bomb in the USA during World War II, based at Los Alamos, New Mexico, which in 1945 made the first atomic bomb. In 1953, at the height of the witch-hunting campaign led by the US Senator Joseph McCarthy, Oppenheimer was excluded from sensitive research on the grounds that he had Communist sympathies, but subsequently (1963) he was unreservedly rehabilitated. http://www.atomicmuseum.com/tour/mp6.cfm ■

    23. BR( Hiroshima) Hiroshima Hiroshima is a Japanese city in southern Honshu. Hitherto largely undamaged by the US bombing campaign, Hiroshima became the target of the first atomic bomb attack on 6 August 1945, which resulted in the virtual obliteration of the city centre and the deaths of about one-third of the population of 300,000. The attack on Hiroshima, together with that on Nagasaki three days later, led directly to Japan’s unconditional surrender and the end of World War II. ■

    24. BR( Nagasaki) Nagasaki Nagasaki is a Japanese city in Kyushu. On 9 August 1945, three days after the first atomic bomb attack on Hiroshima, Nagasaki became the next target. The hilly terrain protected the population of 230,000 from the full effects of the explosion, but 40,000 people were killed and tremendous destruction caused. On the following day Japan offered to surrender and the ceasefire began on 15 August, the official surrender finally being signed on 2 September. ■

    25. GR Global Reading 1. Part Division of the Text 2. Further Understanding For Part 1 Role Play Questions and Answers For Part 2 Word-web Group Discussion For Part 3 Further Division Group Discussion For Part 4 Scanning 3. Text Analysis

    26. GR(Part) Part Division of the Text Dolly the sheep, a clone, was born. Dolly’s birth has made cloning a reality and human cloning a possibility. People have to face the ethical problems of human cloning. Cloning technology could benefit people in more than one way.

    27. GR(RP) Role Play Make a telephone call between Ian Wilmut and John Bracken to describe Dolly’s birth (when, where, weight) and the corresponding response at that time. Pay attention to the tone the two take in the telephone conversation.

    28. GR(QA1) Questions and Answers Scan the first three paragraphs and answer the following questions. 1. Does a tense change take place and what’s it? 2. What important role do beginning paragraphs play in journalistic writing? The first two paragraphs act as introduction to the whole essay.

    29. GR(QA2) Questions and Answers Scan the first three paragraphs and answer the following questions. 3. Why didn’t the author start from the very beginning of cloning research, but start with the birth of Dolly? The text starts with the birth of Dolly, because it is a critical point in cloning research. Readers’ interest is further aroused by the low-key tone. Why no excitement, why no champagne, why were few people around? Readers are then ready to be told an objective account about human cloning.

    30. GR(WW) Word-web Find words and phrases related to the creation of Dolly in the 4th paragraph and describe it in your own words with the help of the list. union sperm egg sheep out of Dolly Clone udder cell original identical twin fuse take up residence gene grow another remove

    31. GR(GD1) Group Discussion 1. In what way is it different from other lambs? 2. What is the significance of Dolly’s birth? 3. What did scientists think of cloning decades ago? 4. Is human cloning possible now that Dolly was born? 5. What is Wilmut’s attitude toward the cloning of humans?

    32. GR(FD) Further Division Further divide this part into two sections and get the main ideas. Human cloning has given rise to the question of what implications the technology may have for mankind. 7~9 The making of the atomic bomb had a tremendous impact on scientists. 10~11

    33. GR(GD2) Group Discussion 1. What is the message Linda Pastan’s poem carries? 2. What does the old joke indicate? 3. What does the story of J. Robert Oppenheimer suggest?

    34. GR(sc) Scanning Scan this part and list the benefits of human cloning, esp. in terms of medicine.

    35. GR( Text Analysis) Text Analysis Get the features of the text concerning the following points. Style: journalistic writing Theme: science and ethics Introduction: eye-catching Tone: objective The “father” of Dolly is levelheaded about his achievement, so is the author. She quotes Wilmut and Oppenheimer to show how science can be a double-edged sword. Before listing the many benefits of human cloning in Part 4, she first identifies the ethical problems involved in Part 3. In her article she asks many questions, to which she gives no answer. If she said that there were definite answers, she would not be objective.

    36. GR( Text Analysis) Diction and Sentence Construction: elaborate words, long and complex sentences and paragraphs

    37. Article1_S A CLONE IS BORN On July 5, 1996, at 5:00 p.m., the most famous lamb in history entered the world. She was born in a shed, just down the road from the Roslin Institute in Roslin, Scotland, where she was created. And yet her creator, Ian Wilmut, a quiet, balding fifty-two-year-old embryologist, does not remember where he was when he heard that the lamb, named Dolly, was born. He does not even recall getting a telephone call from John Bracken, a scientist who had monitored the pregnancy of the sheep that gave birth to Dolly, saying that Dolly was alive and healthy and weighed 6.6 kilograms.

    38. Article1_S-p 1. Analyze the structure of the subject. A CLONE IS BORN Pay attention to the subject: her creator, Ian Wilmut, a quiet, balding fifty-two-year-old embryologist. Here her creator, Ian Wilmut and a quite, balding fifty-two-year-old embryologist are in apposition (同位关系). On July 5, 1996, at 5:00 p.m., the most famous lamb in history entered the world. She was born in a shed, just down the road from the Roslin Institute in Roslin, Scotland, where she was created. And yet her creator, Ian Wilmut, a quiet, balding fifty-two-year-old embryologist, does not remember where he was when he heard that the lamb, named Dolly, was born. He does not even recall getting a telephone call from John Bracken, a scientist who had monitored the pregnancy of the sheep that gave birth to Dolly, saying that Dolly was alive and healthy and weighed 6.6 kilograms. 2. Scan the text and find any other sentences with apposition. LL. 14~15, LL. 21~23, LL. 25~26, etc. 3. What can you infer from the sentence? Even the creator was indifferent to the birth of Dolly, so we can see the attitude of Wilmut towards cloning at the very beginning. From the low-key tone in the introduction and later on words said by Wilmut in the 6th paragraph we can also see that Wilmut was level-headed about his achievement.

    39. Article1_w A CLONE IS BORN On July 5, 1996, at 5:00 p.m., the most famous lamb in history entered the world. She was born in a shed, just down the road from the Roslin Institute in Roslin, Scotland, where she was created. And yet her creator, Ian Wilmut, a quiet, balding fifty-two-year-old embryologist, does not remember where he was when he heard that the lamb, named Dolly, was born. He does not even recall getting a telephone call from John Bracken, a scientist who had monitored the pregnancy of the sheep that gave birth to Dolly, saying that Dolly was alive and healthy and weighed 6.6 kilograms.

    40. Although two clones are identical genetically, they may develop in different ways. Article1_w-clone A CLONE IS BORN clone: • n. any of a group of plants or animals produced from the • cells of a single ancestor and therefore exactly the same • as it is On July 5, 1996, at 5:00 p.m., the most famous lamb in history entered the world. She was born in a shed, just down the road from the Roslin Institute in Roslin, Scotland, where she was created. And yet her creator, Ian Wilmut, a quiet, balding fifty-two-year-old embryologist, does not remember where he was when he heard that the lamb, named Dolly, was born. He does not even recall getting a telephone call from John Bracken, a scientist who had monitored the pregnancy of the sheep that gave birth to Dolly, saying that Dolly was alive and healthy and weighed 6.6 kilograms. Researchers produced clones from adult mice in1998. v. make an exact copy of a plant or animal by taking a cell from it and developing it artificially 2. The idea of cloning extinct life forms still belongs to science fiction. Experiments to try to clone human embryos have met with hostility from some sections of the public.

    41. 他们提供了武器并产生了原子时代。 Article1_w -give birth to A CLONE IS BORN give birth to: 1) bear (a child); bring forth Too many mothers gave birth to babies in the year of 2000. On July 5, 1996, at 5:00 p.m., the most famous lamb in history entered the world. She was born in a shed, just down the road from the Roslin Institute in Roslin, Scotland, where she was created. And yet her creator, Ian Wilmut, a quiet, balding fifty-two-year-old embryologist, does not remember where he was when he heard that the lamb, named Dolly, was born. He does not even recall getting a telephone call from John Bracken, a scientist who had monitored the pregnancy of the sheep that gave birth to Dolly, saying that Dolly was alive and healthy and weighed 6.6 kilograms. create; originate 2) These workers gave birth to a new political party. They provided the weapons and gave birth to the Atomic Age. Collocation: 赠送;泄露 give away give in 屈服,让步 释放,放出 give off give out 分发 放弃 give up

    42. Article2_S No one broke open champagne. No one took pictures. Only a few staff members from the institute and a local veterinarian who attended the birth were present. Yet Dolly, who looked for all the world like hundreds of other lambs that dot the rolling hills of Scotland, was soon to change the world. When the time comes to write the history of our age, this quiet birth, the creation of this little lamb, will stand out. The world is a different place now that she is born. Dolly is a clone. She was created not out of the union of a sperm and an egg but out of the genetic material from an udder cell of a six-year-old sheep.

    43. Article2_S-p No one broke open champagne. No one took pictures. Only a few staff members from the institute and a local veterinarian who attended the birth were present. Yet Dolly, who looked for all the world like hundreds of other lambs that dot the rolling hills of Scotland, was soon to change the world. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 然而,多利,这头与苏格兰起伏的山丘上散布着的千百头其他的羊毫无异样的小羊羔,很快就改变了世界。 When the time comes to write the history of our age, this quiet birth, the creation of this little lamb, will stand out. The world is a different place now that she is born. Dolly is a clone. She was created not out of the union of a sperm and an egg but out of the genetic material from an udder cell of a six-year-old sheep.

    44. Article2_w No one broke open champagne. No one took pictures. Only a few staff members from the institute and a local veterinarian who attended the birth were present. Yet Dolly, who looked for all the world like hundreds of other lambs that dot the rolling hills of Scotland, was soon to change the world. When the time comes to write the history of our age, this quiet birth, the creation of this little lamb, will stand out. The world is a different place now that she is born. Dolly is a clone. She was created not out of the union of a sperm and an egg but out of the genetic material from an udder cell of a six-year-old sheep.

    45. Article2_w-for all the world No one broke open champagne. No one took pictures. Only a few staff members from the institute and a local veterinarian who attended the birth were present. Yet Dolly, who looked for all the world like hundreds of other lambs that dot the rolling hills of Scotland, was soon to change the world. for all the world: in every respect; exactly The old lady felt for all the world as if she was still young. The little boy looked for all the world like his father. When the time comes to write the history of our age, this quiet birth, the creation of this little lamb, will stand out. The world is a different place now that she is born. Dolly is a clone. She was created not out of the union of a sperm and an egg but out of the genetic material from an udder cell of a six-year-old sheep.

    46. Article3_s Wilmut fused the udder cell with an egg from another sheep, after first removing all genetic material from the egg. The udder cell’s genes took up residence in the egg and directed it to grow and develop. The result was Dolly, the identical twin of the original sheep that provided the udder cells, but an identical twin born six years later. Until Dolly entered the world, cloning was the stuff of science fiction. It had been raised as a possibility decades ago, then dismissed, something that serious scientists thought was simply not going to happen anytime soon.

    47. Article3_s-p Wilmut fused the udder cell with an egg from another sheep, after first removing all genetic material from the egg. The udder cell’s genes took up residence in the egg and directed it to grow and develop. The result was Dolly, the identical twin of the original sheep that provided the udder cells, but an identical twin born six years later. Until Dolly entered the world, cloning was the stuff of science fiction. It had been raised as a possibility decades ago, then dismissed, something that serious scientists thought was simply not going to happen anytime soon. Paraphrase the sentence. Decades ago, cloning had been thought to be a possible technology and then was disregarded by serious scientists because they thought it wasn’t going to happen in the near future.

    48. Article3_w Wilmut fused the udder cell with an egg from another sheep, after first removing all genetic material from the egg. The udder cell’s genes took upresidence in the egg and directed it to grow and develop. The result was Dolly, the identical twin of the original sheep that provided the udder cells, but an identical twin born six years later. Until Dolly entered the world, cloning was the stuff of science fiction. It had been raised as a possibility decades ago, then dismissed, something that serious scientists thought was simply not going to happen anytime soon.

    49. The bottom of the candle was fused with the table. Article3_w-fuse fuse: 1. v. 1) (cause to) join together Wilmut fused the udder cell with an egg from another sheep, after first removing all genetic material from the egg. The udder cell’s genes took upresidence in the egg and directed it to grow and develop. The result was Dolly, the identical twin of the original sheep that provided the udder cells, but an identical twin born six years later. Until Dolly entered the world, cloning was the stuff of science fiction. It had been raised as a possibility decades ago, then dismissed, something that serious scientists thought was simply not going to happen anytime soon. The scientist tried to fuse these pieces into a whole. melt through great heat 2) Lead will fuse at quite a low temperature. n. a short piece of wire which melts and breaks the circuit if the circuit is overloaded 2. 如果你同时把电暖炉和电热锅都开着,保险丝会烧断的。 You’ll blow a fuse if you put the electric heater and the cooker on at the same time.

    50. Article3_w- take up1 take up: 1) go and live; move into (a certain position) Wilmut fused the udder cell with an egg from another sheep, after first removing all genetic material from the egg. The udder cell’s genes took upresidence in the egg and directed it to grow and develop. The result was Dolly, the identical twin of the original sheep that provided the udder cells, but an identical twin born six years later. Until Dolly entered the world, cloning was the stuff of science fiction. It had been raised as a possibility decades ago, then dismissed, something that serious scientists thought was simply not going to happen anytime soon. 2) begin to do; interest oneself in 3) continue 4) occupy Match the above definitions with the sentences below. (4) The extra duties took up most of my time. (2) He took up mountain climbing while at school. (3) Let’s take up our story where we left off. (1) One of my best partners left to take up another post.