Chapter 11 Cognitive Models and a Theory of Academic Motivation By Team Arnowicz a.k.a Eric Arnold & Phillip Galarowicz
Motivation • 1. The psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a desired goal. • 2. The reason for the action that which gives purpose and direction to behavior.
Motivation and Self-Efficacy “Students with high self-efficacy increase their effort on difficult tasks, persist when they encounter obstacles, and tend to set challenging goals for themselves.”
Motivational Models and Theories • Goal: • The goal of motivational models and theories focuses on the factors that influence student engagement in achievement-related activities. • Different from learning theory in that learning theory focuses on achievement of specific skills and capabilities or the conditions of growth in thinking.
Basic Assumptions • Motivation is the result of interactions between environmental factors and the individual’s characteristics. • The learner is an active processor of information. • A learner’s motives, needs, or goals are explicit information.
Motivational Models • The Expectancy-Value Model • Goal Orientation Models`
The Expectancy-Value Model • Student motivation is derived from what they are expected to do to reach the level of attainment value. • Task Value: Attainment Value Intrinsic value Utility Value Cost • Expectancy Value: Extent to which the individual will perceive their level of success for a given goal.
Goal Orientation Models • Students motivations are derived from personal rationales for engagement in academic tasks based on a set of behavioral intentions. • Learning Related Goals: 1. Learning Goals 2. Mastery Goals 3. Task Goals • Performance Goals: 1. Performance Goals 2. Ego-Involved Goals
Attribution Theory • Addresses individuals’ thoughts, emotions, and expectancies following an achievement-related outcome. • Attribution VS. Causality • Process involved in determining the causes of success and failure outcomes. • The resulting emotions and expectancies that influence the subsequent behavior. a. Positive Outcomes b. Negative Outcomes
Things to Watch Out For • Motivational beliefs develop and change over time. • Encouraging students to try harder is counter productive: • Students believe that they already work hard. • Students are discouraged by the directives that indicate their success depends on maximum effort. • The search for understanding should be the prime motivator. – Attribution Theory
Team Arnowicz Opinion • Set the tone the first day and hold students to clear expectations. • Interact with the students on their level. • Build POSITIVE relationships. • Show the students that you are interested in them. • If you can get their interest, you can help them achieve success.
Works Cited • “Motivation” defined by dictionary.com • All other quotes and slides were derived from Gredler. • Picture from http://people.nnu.edu/~blmyers/SarahGivingThumbsUp.JPG