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Chapter 11. Cognitive Models and a Theory of Academic Motivation. By Team Arnowicz a.k.a Eric Arnold & Phillip Galarowicz. Motivation. 1. The psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a desired goal.

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Chapter 11

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    1. Chapter 11 Cognitive Models and a Theory of Academic Motivation By Team Arnowicz a.k.a Eric Arnold & Phillip Galarowicz

    2. Motivation • 1. The psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a desired goal. • 2. The reason for the action that which gives purpose and direction to behavior.

    3. Motivation and Self-Efficacy “Students with high self-efficacy increase their effort on difficult tasks, persist when they encounter obstacles, and tend to set challenging goals for themselves.”

    4. Motivational Models and Theories • Goal: • The goal of motivational models and theories focuses on the factors that influence student engagement in achievement-related activities. • Different from learning theory in that learning theory focuses on achievement of specific skills and capabilities or the conditions of growth in thinking.

    5. Basic Assumptions • Motivation is the result of interactions between environmental factors and the individual’s characteristics. • The learner is an active processor of information. • A learner’s motives, needs, or goals are explicit information.

    6. Motivational Models • The Expectancy-Value Model • Goal Orientation Models`

    7. The Expectancy-Value Model • Student motivation is derived from what they are expected to do to reach the level of attainment value. • Task Value: Attainment Value Intrinsic value Utility Value Cost • Expectancy Value: Extent to which the individual will perceive their level of success for a given goal.

    8. Goal Orientation Models • Students motivations are derived from personal rationales for engagement in academic tasks based on a set of behavioral intentions. • Learning Related Goals: 1. Learning Goals 2. Mastery Goals 3. Task Goals • Performance Goals: 1. Performance Goals 2. Ego-Involved Goals

    9. Attribution Theory • Addresses individuals’ thoughts, emotions, and expectancies following an achievement-related outcome. • Attribution VS. Causality • Process involved in determining the causes of success and failure outcomes. • The resulting emotions and expectancies that influence the subsequent behavior. a. Positive Outcomes b. Negative Outcomes

    10. Things to Watch Out For • Motivational beliefs develop and change over time. • Encouraging students to try harder is counter productive: • Students believe that they already work hard. • Students are discouraged by the directives that indicate their success depends on maximum effort. • The search for understanding should be the prime motivator. – Attribution Theory

    11. Team Arnowicz Opinion • Set the tone the first day and hold students to clear expectations. • Interact with the students on their level. • Build POSITIVE relationships. • Show the students that you are interested in them. • If you can get their interest, you can help them achieve success.

    12. Works Cited • “Motivation” defined by • All other quotes and slides were derived from Gredler. • Picture from