ANIMAL FARM By George Orwell
Allegory • The representation of abstract ideas or principles by characters, figures, or events in narratives, dramatic, or pictorial form. • A symbolic representation • Each character and event in Animal Farm represents an actual person, group of people, or event from The Russian Revolution
Karl marx 1818-1883 • A philosopher and revolutionary, Marx envisioned a classless society in which the means of production would be placed in the hands of the workers themselves. • He believed that capitalism would be replaced by socialism which in turn would bring upon communism.
Socialism • A system in which the ownership and operation of the means of production and distribution belongs to the community rather than private individuals. All members of society or the community share in the work and the products.
The communist manifesto • Published in 1848 • Marx predicts an inevitable revolution of the working class against the capitalists who exploit their labor for profit. • The Manifesto suggested a course of action for a proletarian (working class) revolution to overthrow the ruling class. Bourgeoisie and to eventually bring about a classless society.
communism • Is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. It can be considered a branch of the broader socialist movement.
capitalism • Economic system in which all or most of the means of production and distribution are privately owned and operated for profit.
Vladimir Lenin 1870-1924 • Leads revolt by political party called the Bolsheviks that topples the government of the Russian Czar (1917) • The communist party takes control. • Dies in 1924, entombed in a glass coffin • A struggle of control arises between Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin.
Leon trotsky 1879-1940 • A great planner and organizer • Favored rapid industrialization and the exportation of revolutionary ideals to other countries • Was later exiled and assassinated in 1940 by a Stalin follower
Joseph stalin 1878-1953 • Preferred to concentrate on building a strong socialist state at home. • Used his secret police to defeat Trotsky. • Had Trotsky exiled and denounced him as a traitor.
Stalin cont’d… • From 1936-1938 Stalin conducts the Moscow show trials. • High ranking Soviet military and political leaders, including heroes of the revolution, confessed to crimes against the state and were condemned to death. • Meanwhile, the secret police were arresting and interrogating hundreds of thousands of Soviet citizens who were charged with crimes and executed. Millions died during Stalin’s reign.
More stalin • As WWII got underway, Stalin abruptly shifted his allegiance from the British allies to the Nazi regime. • Stalin signed a non-aggression pact with Hitler which proved to be worthless • Germany attacked Russia in 1941
The corruption of ideals • Communism is idealistic-based on equality • Turns into Totalitarianism
Abuse of language • Propaganda • People are able to manipulate others that are less educated
Revision of the past • The past is changed through manipulation of the facts and people’s memories
Power corrupts • Leadership and respect lead to absolute control
Mr. jones • Owns the Manor Farm • Is a drunkard who mismanages the farm • Represents the last Czar of Russia (Nicholas II)
Old major • A wise and benevolent prize boar • Highly respected by the animals • A visionary dreamer and philosopher • Author of “Beasts of England” • Dies 3 days after revealing his dream • Represents Marx and Lenin
SNOWBALL • Great planner and organizer • Speaks well • Tries to implement Old Major’s ideas • Represents Trotsky
napoleon • A large, fierce looking boar • Not a talker, but gets his way • Secretive, ruthless, and cunning • Represents Stalin
boxer • Tall, strong cart horse • Loyal and hard working • Well-meaning but not intelligent • Represents unthinking working class.
squealer • A small fat pig • A brilliant and persuasive talker • Napoleon’s propagandist
Moses • A raven • Mr. Jones’ pet • Soothes animals with stories of Sugarcandy Mountain • Represents religious institutions
OTHER CHARACTERS • Benjamin • A donkey • Loner-keeps opinions to himself • Skeptical of change • Never laughs • Hard worker/never volunteers • pessimistic • Clover • Hard working mare • Not very intelligent • motherly • Mollie • A vain white mare • Enjoys pretty ribbon, sugar, and human attention