Early Childhood Inclusion at the Frank Porter Graham Child Care Program: A Collaborative and Routines-Based Approach
Presenters:Ruth Miller, M.Ed., Special Services Coordinator, FPG Child Care ProgramKathy Davis, M.A., CCC-SLP, FPG Child Care Program The Frank Porter Graham Child Care Program in Chapel Hill, NC • Provides quality childcare to children birth to 5 years of age, including children with special needs • Supports the research and educational missions of the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill • Enrollment typically approximately 80 children; 25-30% of children enrolled have identified disability • Special services staff works closely with classroom teachers • NC Five Star License; NAEYC Accreditation; Developmental Day Certification
A Collaborative Model of Inclusion • Major Components: • Routine-Based Assessment • Team Goal Planning Process • Integrated Therapy • Embedded Intervention • This model has been developed by and is used by • researchers, specialists and teachers at the Frank Porter • Graham Child Care Program
Routines Based Assessment • Family Interview • Classroom Teacher Interview
Routines-Based Assessment • Interview conducted with family targets home routines and activities: • Waking up • Meals • Going out in the community • Playtime • Bedtime • Self-care (dressing, toileting, bathing, toothbrushing…) • Etc.
Routines-Based Assessment • Interview conducted with teacher targets classroom routines and activities: • Meals • Free play • Structured play activities • Outdoor play • Transitions • Self-care (dressing, toileting, washing hands) • Circle time
Sample Priorities Using the Results… • To determine whether there is a need for further assessment (observation, evaluation of specific skills, environmental assessment, etc.) • Priorities that emerge from Routines-Based Assessment become targeted outcomes or goal areas
IEP/IFSP Development Process • Family Directed • Team Approach • Outcomes based on • Priorities emerging from • Routines Based Assessment • Functional Outcomes
The Goal Planning MeetingPre-IEP and IFSP Development Purpose: • To develop a mutually agreed upon plan for serving young children with special needs • To bring together the people involved in a child’s life • To meet federal, state and local guidelines for young children with special needs
IEP and IFSP Development Process: • Review and discuss family and classroom priorities and outcomes • Discuss and select goals based on priorities • Prioritize goals • Suggest teaching strategies
Writing Functional Goals A goal is functional when it is: • Specific enough so everyone knows what is being worked on? • General enough so the child has options for how he or she performs the skill • Worded in a way most ordinary people would understand • Respectful of diverse cultures and backgrounds • One in which all are invested
Writing Functional Goals • Functional goals: • reflect concerns of family • are “jargon free” • address skills/behaviors immediately useful in children’s everyday routines • are integrated into daily routines • are evaluated with a logical criterion
“Functional” Defined Synonyms: • Useful • Practical • Handy
Functional Goals & Objectives All Goals should focus on Engagement: Goal directedness, attention, participation Independence: Functioning in the environment on one’s own without support Social Competence: Interacting with both peers and adults in interactions that are reciprocated, rewarding and positive
Engagement Goal Directedness, Attention, Participation
Independence Functioning in the environment on one’s own without support
Social Competence Interacting with both peers and adults in interactions that are reciprocated, rewarding and positive
Integrated Therapy Intervention strategies are integrated into the daily routines and activities of the child, and when the therapist interacts with the child, it is typically within the context of those daily activities and routines.
Integrated Therapy More than just “in the classroom” Let’s look at…. • Location • Presence of Peers • Adult versus Child Initiations • Context • Focus of Interventions • Role of specialist
Integrated Therapy Service delivery models, from most to least segregated: • One-on-one pull-out • Small-group pull-out • One-on-one in classroom • Group activity • Individualized within routines • Consultation models
Integrated Therapy • Use of this model requires: • On-going collaboration between teachers and therapists • Flexibility of scheduling • Change in focus of the specialist Integrated services can look very different depending on the needs of the child and the discipline of the specialist.
Integrated Therapy Benefits of Most Integrated Models • Specialists assess functioning in daily routines • Children are learning skills related to daily routines and activities • Specialists and teachers can more easily problem solve as needs arise and determine whether current strategies are working
Integrated Therapy More Benefits… • Peer models are readily available • Teachers learn intervention strategies by observation of and instruction by specialists • Children’s social relationships are fostered
Integrated Therapy Video Examples
Team Planning Process Therapist/teacher meetings biweekly Making sure we are explicitly targeting priority goals/outcomes Strategy/goal forms at team meetings Using goal/activity matrices Collaborative consultation methods
Team Planning Process Team meeting and record forms: STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT AND PROGRESS REPORT CLASSROOM RECORD FORM
Embedded Intervention Embedded intervention refers to the process of collaboratively planning and implementing intervention strategies that occur within daily activities and routines.
Embedded Intervention The classroom teacher and/or parent becomes the primary provider of the intervention strategies.
Intervention Strategies Structuring physical space Structuring social space Vary child roles Using child preferences (follow child’s lead) Positive reinforcement Priming Add/enhance cues Reduce or increase required response Prompting and Time delay Object and Visual Cues Picture and Object Schedules Child Choice Systems Social Stories Adaptive Equipment and Assistive Technology Peer-Mediated Interventions Incidental Teaching Musical Interventions Increase frequency/number of opportunities for practice
Embedded Intervention Effective embedding of strategies requires • Ongoing collaborative consultation between teachers and specialists • Material support (making picture systems, adapting existing classroom materials) • Good variety of classroom and playground activities
Additional Planning Forms GOAL/ ACTIVITY MATRIX LESSON PLAN ADAPTED LESSON PLAN
Taking the Model Home… Questions? Discussion?
Contact Us Kathy Davis, FPG Child Care Program 105 Smith Level Road, CB #8180 Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8180 Phone: 919-966-5188 Email: email@example.com Ruth Miller, FPG Child Care Program 105 Smith Level Road, CB #8180 Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8180 Phone: 919-966-5095 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org