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Chapter 12 Measurement Scales. 授課老師 : 洪新原 老師 組員 :602530005 薛維德 602530009 林冠吟 602530011 駱仲倫 日期 : 2013/12/16. The Nature of Attitudes. An attitude is a learned stable predisposition to respond to oneself, other persons, objects, or issues in consistently favorable of unfavorable way.

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chapter 12 measurement scales

Chapter 12Measurement Scales

授課老師: 洪新原 老師

組員:602530005 薛維德

602530009 林冠吟

602530011 駱仲倫

日期:2013/12/16

the nature of attitudes
The Nature of Attitudes
  • An attitude is a learned stable predisposition to respond to oneself, other persons, objects, or issues in consistently favorable of unfavorable way.

Cognitive

I think oatmeal is healthier

than corn flakes for breakfast.

Affective

I hate corn flakes.

Conative/

Behavioral

I intend to eat more oatmeal

for breakfast.

t he relationship between attitudes and behavior
The Relationship between Attitudes and Behavior
  • Attitudes and behavioral intentions do not always lead to actual behaviors; and although attitudes and behaviors are expected to be consistent with each other, that is not always the case. Moreover, behaviors can influence attitudes.
  • Business researchers treat attitude as hypothetical constructs because of their complexity and the fact that they are inferred from the measurement data, not actually observed.
several factors have an effect on the applicability of attitudinal research
Several factors have an effect on the applicability of attitudinal research
  • Specific attitude are better predictors of behavior than general ones.
  • Strong are better predictors of behavior than weak attitudes composed of little intensity or topical interest.
several factors have an effect on the applicability of attitudinal research1
Several factors have an effect on the applicability of attitudinal research
  • Direct experiences with the attitude objectproduce behavior more reliably.
  • Cognitive-based attitudes influence behaviors better than affective-based attitudes.
  • Affective-based attitudes are often better predictors of consumption behaviors.
several factors have an effect on the applicability of attitudinal research2
Several factors have an effect on the applicability of attitudinal research
  • Using multiple measurements of attitude or several behavioral assessments across time and environments improves prediction.
  • The influenceof reference groups(interpersonal support, urges of compliance, peer pressure)and the individual’s inclination to conform to these influences improves the attitude-behavior linkage
attitude scaling
Attitude Scaling
  • Attitudescaling is the process of assessing an attitudinal disposition using a number that represents a person's score on an attitudinal continuum ranging from a extremely favorable disposition to an extremely unfavorable one.
  • Scaling is the “procedure for the assignment of numbers”(or other symbols) to a property of objects in order to impart some of the characteristics of numbers to the properties in question.
selecting a measurement scale
Selecting a Measurement Scale
  • Research objectives.
  • Response types.
  • Data properties.
  • Number of dimensions.
  • Balanced or unbalanced.
  • Forced or unforced choices.
  • Number of scale points.
  • Rater errors.
research objectives
Research objectives
  • Researchers, however, face two general types of scaling objectives:
    • To measure characteristics of the participants who participate in the study.
    • To use participants as judge of the objects or indicants presented to them.
response types
Response types
  • A rating scale is used when participants score an object or indicant without making a direct comparison to another object or attitude.
  • Ranking scales constrain the study participant to making comparisons and determining order among two or more properties(or their indicants) or objects.
  • Categorization asks participants to put themselves or property indicants in groups or categories.
  • Sorting requires that participants sort cards (representing concepts orconstructs) into piles using criteria established by the researcher.
data properties
Data Properties
  • Decisions about the choice of measurement scales are often made with regard to the data properties generated by each scale.
    • Nominal scales
    • Ordinal data
    • Interval scales
    • Ratio scales
balanced or unbalanced
Balanced or Unbalanced

Very bad

Bad

Neither good nor bad

Good

Very good

Poor

Fair

Good

Very good

Excellent

Easy rater or hard rater

Error of leniency

forced or unforced choices
Forced or Unforced Choices

Very bad

Bad

Neither good nor bad

Good

Very good

Very bad

Bad

Neither good nor bad

Good

Very good

No opinion

Don’t know

number of scale points
Number of Scale Points

Very bad

Bad

Neither good nor bad

Good

Very good

Very bad

Somewhat bad

A little bad

Neither good nor bad

A little good

Somewhat good

Very good

reliability

number of scale points1
Number of Scale Points
  • As the number of scale points increases, the reliability of the measure increases.
  • In some studies, scales with 11 points may produce more valid results than 3, 5, or 7 point scales.
  • Some constructs require greater measurement sensitivity and the opportunity to extract more variance, which additional scale points provide.
  • A larger number of scale points are needed to produce accuracy when using single-dimension versus multiple dimension scales.
rater errors
Rater Errors
  • Adjust strength of descriptive adjectives.
  • Space intermediate descriptive phrases farther apart.
  • Provide smaller differences in meaning between terms near the ends of the scale
  • Use more scale points

Error of central tendency

Error of leniency

rater errors1
Rater Errors
  • Rate one trait at a time
  • Reveal one trait per page
  • Reverse anchors periodically

Halo Effect

rating scales
Rating Scales
  • Questioning is a widely used stimulus for measuring concepts and constructs.
  • With a properly constructed scales, we use rating scales to judge properties of objects without reference to other similar objects
simple category scale
Simple Category Scale
  • This scale is also called a dichotomous scale.
    • It offers two mutually exclusive response choices.
  • The response choices are yes and no, but they could be other response choices too such as agree and disagree.
  • This response strategy is particularly useful for demographic question or where a dichotomous response is adequate
simple category scale1
Simple Category Scale
  • I plan to purchase a MindWriter laptop in the 12 months.
      • Yes
      • No
multiple choice single response scale
Multiple-Choice, Single-Response Scale
  • When there are multiple options for the rater but only one answer is sought, the multiple-choice, single-response scale is appropriate.
  • The primary alternative should encompass 90 % of the rang ,with the other category completing the participant’s list
  • The other response may be omitted when exhaustiveness of categories is not critical or there is no possibility for an other response.
  • This scale produces nominal data.
multiple choice single response scale1
Multiple-Choice, Single-Response Scale
  • What newspaper do you read most often for financial news?
      • East City Gazette
      • West City Tribune
      • Regional newspaper
      • National newspaper
      • Other (specify:_____________)
multiple choice multiple response scale
Multiple-Choice, Multiple-Response Scale
  • Multiple-Choice, Multiple-Response Scaleis called a checklist.
  • It allows the rater to select one or several alternatives.
  • The cumulative feature of this scale can be beneficial when a complete picture of the participant’s choice is desired
  • It may also present a problem for reporting when research sponsors expect the responses to sum to 100 percent.
  • This scale generates nominal data.
multiple choice multiple response scale1
Multiple-Choice, Multiple-Response Scale
  • What sources did you use when designing your new
  • home? Please check all that apply.
      • Online planning services
      • Magazines
      • Independent contractor/builder
      • Designer
      • Architect
      • Other (specify:_____________)
likert scales
Likert Scales
  • The Likert scale was developed by RensisLikert and is the most frequently used variation of the summated rating scale.
  • Summated rating scales consist of statements that express either a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward the object of interest.
  • Each response is given a numerical score to reflect its degree of attitudinal favorableness and the scores may be summed to measure the participant’s overall attitude.
  • Traditional Likert scales may use 1to 5 levels of agreement, Likert scales also use 7 or 9 scale points.
  • The scale produces interval data.
likert scales1
Likert Scales
  • Item analysis
  • A large number of statements were collected that met two criteria: (1)Each statements was relevant to the attitude being studied(2) each was believed to reflect a favorable or unfavorable position on the attitude, using 5-point scales
  • Each person’s responses are then add to secure a total score
  • To array there total scores and select some portion representing the highest and lowest total scores(top and bottom 10 to 25%), the middle group(50 to 80%)are excluded
likert scales2
Likert Scales
  • The two extreme group represent people with the most favorable and least favorable attitude, which individual items are evaluated
  • Item analysis assesses each item base on how well it discriminiates between those persons whose total score is high and low
  • Then calculating the mean score for each scales items and tested for statistical significance by computing t values
  • Each statement are rank-ordered choice 20 to 25 items inclusion in the final scales ,if there are more than 25 items,using the statement only t value is 1.75 or greater
likert scales3
Likert Scales
  • The Internet is superior to traditional libraries for

comprehensive searches.

      • Strongly disagree
      • Disagree
      • Neither agree nor disagree
      • Agree
      • Strongly agree
semantic differential scales
Semantic DifferentialScales
  • The semantic differential scale measures the psychological meanings of an attitude object using bipolar adjectives
  • Researchers use this scale for studies of brand and institutional image
  • The method consists of a set of bipolar rating scales, usually with 7 points, by which one or more participants rate one or more concepts on each scale item
  • The scale is based on the proposition that an object can have several dimensions of connotative meaning. The meanings are located in multidimensional property space, called semantic space.
semantic differential scales1
Semantic DifferentialScales
  • Osgood and his associates developed the Semantic Differentialmethod to measure the psychological meanings of an objects to an individual
  • They produced a list of 289 bipolar adjective pairs,which were reduced to 76 pairs
  • Three factors contributed most to meaningful judgments by participants: (1)evaluation(2)potency(3)activeity
semantic differential scales3
Semantic DifferentialScales
  • Select the concepts: nouns, noun phrases or nonverbal stimuli. Concepts are chosen by judgment and reflect the nature of investigative question
  • Select bipolar word pairs or phrase appropriate to your needs
    • Three bipolar pairs are requiredwhen using evaluation, potency, activity. Scores on these individual items can be averaged to improve their reliability
    • The scales should be relevant to the concepts being judged. Choose adjectives that allow connotative perceptions to be express
    • Scales should be stable across raters and concepts
    • Scales should be linear between polar opposites and pass through the origin
semantic differential scales4
Semantic DifferentialScales
  • Create the scoring system and assign a weight to each point on the scale. The negative signs in the original scoring procedure were found to produce coding errors, and the 0 point is arbitrary. Most SD scales have 7 points(1 to 7)
  • As with Likertscales , about half of the adjective pairs are randomly reversed to minimize the halo effect
numerical scales
Numerical Scales
  • Numerical scales have equal intervals that separate their numeric scale points. The verbal anchors serve as the labels for the extreme points.
  • Numerical scales are often 5-point scales but may have 7 or 10 points.
  • The participants write a number from the scale next to each item.
  • It produces either ordinal or interval data.
multiple rating list scales
Multiple Rating List Scales
  • A multiple rating scale is similar to the numerical scale but differs in two ways:
    • it accepts a circled response from the rater, and
    • the layout facilitates visualization of the results.
  • The advantage is that a mental map of the participant’s evaluations is evident to both the rater and the researcher.
  • This scale produces interval data.
multiple rating list scales1
Multiple Rating List Scales

“Please indicate how important or unimportant each service characteristic is:”

IMPORTANT UNIMPORTANT

Fast, reliable repair 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Service at my location 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Maintenance by manufacturer 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Knowledgeable technicians 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Notification of upgrades 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Service contract after warranty 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

stapel scales
Stapel Scales
  • The Stapel scale is used as an alternative to the semantic differential, especially when it is difficult to find bipolar adjectives that match the investigative question.
  • Fewer response categories are sometimes used, ranking range from +5 to -5
  • Stapel scales produce interval data.
constant sum scales
Constant-Sum Scales
  • The constant-sum scale helps researchers to discover proportions.
      • The participant allocates points to more than one attribute or property indicant, such that they total a constant sum, usually 100 or 10.
      • Participant precision and patience suffer when too many stimuli are proportioned and summed.
      • A participant’s ability to add may also be taxed.
  • Its advantage is its compatibility with percent and the fact that alternatives that are perceived to be equal can be so scored.
  • This scale produces interval data.
graphic rating scales
Graphic Rating Scales
  • The graphic rating scale was originally created to enable researchers to discern fine differences.
    • Theoretically, an infinite number of ratings is possible if participants are sophisticated enough to differentiate and record them.
    • They are instructed to mark their response at any point along a continuum.
    • Usually, the score is a measure of length from either endpoint.
    • The results are treated as interval data.
    • The difficulty is in coding and analysis.
    • Graphic rating scales use pictures, icons, or other visuals to communicate with the rater and represent a variety of data types.
    • Graphic scales are often used with children.
ranking scales
Ranking Scales
  • In ranking scales, the participant directly compares two or more objects and makes choices among them.
  • The participant may be asked to select one as the best or most preferred.
  • Model A 40% .Model B 30% .Model C 30%
ranking scales1
Ranking Scales

Paired-comparison scale

Forced ranking scale

Comparative scale

paired comparison scale
Paired-Comparison Scale
  • Using the paired-comparison scale, the participant can express attitudes unambiguously by choosing between two objects.
  • The number of judgments required in a paired comparison is [(n)(n-1)/2], where n is the number of stimuli or objects to be judged.
paired comparison scale3
Paired-Comparison Scale
  • Paired comparisons run the risk that participants will tire to the point that they give ill-considered answers or refuse to continue.
  • Paired comparisons provide ordinal data.
forced ranking scale
Forced Ranking Scale
  • The forced ranking scale lists attributes that are ranked relative to each other.
forced ranking scale1
Forced Ranking Scale
  • This method is faster than paired comparisons and is usually easier and more motivating to the participant.
  • A drawback of this scale is the limited number of stimuli (usually no more than 7) that can be handed by the participant.
  • This scale produces ordinal data.
comparative scale
Comparative Scale
  • When using a comparative scale, the participant compares an object against a standard.
sorting
Sorting
  • Q-sorts require sorting of a deck of cards into piles that represent points along a continuum.
      • The participant groups the cards based on his or her response to the concept written on the card.
      • Researchers using Q-sort resolve three special problems:
          • item selection
          • structured or unstructured choices in sorting
          • data analysis
sorting1
Sorting
  • For statistical stability, the number of cards should not be less than 60, and, for convenience, not be more than 120.
  • After the cards are created, they are shuffled, and the participant is instructed to sort the cards into a set of piles (usually 7 to 11), each pile representing a point on the judgment continuum.
  • The left-most pile represents the concept statements, which are “most valuable,” “favorable,” and “agreeable.” The right-most pile contains the least favorable cards.
sorting2
Sorting
  • In the case of a structured sort, the distribution of cards allowed in each pile is predetermined.
  • With an unstructured sort, only the number of piles will be determined.
sorting3
Sorting
  • The purpose of sorting is to get a conceptual representation of the sorter’s attitude toward the attitude object and to compare the relationships between people.
cumulative scale
Cumulative scale
  • With a cumulative scale, a participant’s agreement with one extreme scale item endorses all other items that take a less extreme position.
      • A pioneering scale of this type was the scalogram.
      • Scalogram analysis is a procedure for determining whether a set of items forms a unidimensional scale.
cumulative scale1
Cumulative scale
  • A new style of running shoe

1. The Airsole is good-looking

2. I will insist on Airsole next time because it is great-looking.

3. The appearance of Airsole is acceptable to me

4. I prefer the Airsole style on other styles.