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Theatre in the Middle Ages

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  1. Theatre in the Middle Ages

  2. Early Christianity’s Role • 6th Century Catholic Church banned all theatre productions • Decayed Morally • Against man pretending to be what he is not

  3. Churches Role Continued • Tenth Century • Religious drama was allowed • Due to illiteracy drama was a way to teach Christian doctrine, stories and history • Plays evolved from simple dramatized stories to “Miracle Pageants”

  4. The Renaissance • 1455 Gutenberg and the printing press • Rebirth of learning and the arts • Gradually all of Europe reading and writing • Neoclassical age

  5. Renaissance Playwrights • Playwriting epdemic • Hans Sachs • Spain • France • England

  6. A little Clip about Renaissance Theatre

  7. Spanish Theatre • Golden Age • 30,000 plays written • Lope de Vega • Cervantes • Calderon

  8. French Theatre • Racine • Cornielle • Moliere

  9. English Theatre • Neoclassical Playwrights left more plays than any other country or period in history • Marlowe • Thomas Kyd • Shakespeare

  10. Shakespeare • Greatest tragic playwright ever • Finest Comic playwright • Borrowed most of is plots from other plays and stories • Developed these plots more deeply • Language most lyrical and profound ever written by a playwright • Themes are universal

  11. A Clip from Twelfth Night

  12. Renaissance Italy’s contribution • Italy seat of the Renaissance • Produced no lasting playwrights • Created two new drama forms • Develped setting through which toay’s theatre of realism would be viewed

  13. Opera • Group of writers and musicians in Florence • Recreate music used by Greek tragedians • Failed at that, but created a merging of music and drama = opera • Montverde

  14. Commedia dell’arte • Drama by professional actors • Touring professional troupes • Used stock characters • Improvised stories • Popular from 16th cent. To the beginning of the 18th cent. • “Slapstick” originated with this genre

  15. Italy continued • Proscenium Arch • Perspective

  16. Europe from Renaissance to Realism • 1650-1870 • Goldoni • Goldsmith • Sheridan • Wilde • Romantics • Rights of the common man

  17. Age of Realism • Nineteenth Century • Darwin • America’s emergence as a credible country

  18. Founding Playwrights of the Age of Realism • Henrik Ibsen Norway • Social justice • Women’s equality • Harsh and controversial • Arthur Miller • Anton Chekhov • George Bernard Shaw • Plays during this age were about the common man with common problems

  19. Emergence of Directors • Until the end of the 19th century managers and producers handled coordinated it all • Duke of Sace-Meiningen • Constantine Stanislavski • Reinhardt Copeau

  20. The Duke • Abolished star system • Actors worked as an ensemble • Insistence on exact technical details

  21. Stanislavski • Russian • Established Moscow Art Theatre • Most insightful and innovate director • The Method • Listen and react • Ensemble

  22. Reinhardt and Copeau • Mold and fashion plays how they wanted them • Made an impact in native countries as well as US

  23. Nonrealistic Theatre • Theatre of symbolism • Influenced by symbolistic art and music of the late 19th century • Tried to show meaning and emotion • August Strindberg • Maurice Maeterlink • Gerog Kaiser • Thornton Wilder

  24. Theatre of the Absurd • Tried to find meaning in a world that has no meaning • Believed there was no god and no life after death • Outraged b the destruction of war • Tried to show uselessness and absurdity of life • Used humorous dialogue and actions • Usually disjointed and senseless • Samuel Beckett and Eugene Ionesco