Chapter 21 – Enlightenment and Revolution. Section Notes. Video. Ideas of the Enlightenment New Views on Government The Age of Revolution. The Declaration of Independence. Maps. Quick Facts. European Monarchies, 1789. Ideas of Enlightenment Documents of Democracy
Ideas of the Enlightenment
New Views on Government
The Age of Revolution
The Declaration of
European Monarchies, 1789
Ideas of Enlightenment
Documents of Democracy
Chapter 21 Visual Summary
Time Line: The
Women’s March on
Enlightenment thinkers built on ideas from earlier movements to emphasize the importance of reason.
The Enlightenment was also called the Age of Reason.
The Enlightenment’s roots can be traced back to earlier ideas.
New ideas came mainly from French and British thinkers.Ideas of the Enlightenment
The use of reason in guiding people’s thoughts about philosophy, society, and politics defined a time period called the Enlightenment.
These new scholars relied on reason or logical thought instead of religious teachings to explain how the world worked.
They believed that human reason could be used to achieve three great goals—knowledge, freedom, and happiness.The Age of Reason
Enlightenment thinkers disagreed with the church’s claims to authority and its intolerance toward non-Christian beliefs.
Renaissance and Reformation ideas also reappeared during the Enlightenment period.
The Scientific Revolution also influenced Enlightenment thinkers.The Enlightenment’s Roots
They made efforts to share their writings with the public.
British men and women also began to publish their writings.
Some women writers believed that women should have the same rights as men.The Spread of New Ideas
Enlightenment ideas influenced the growth of democratic governments in Europe and America.
The Enlightenment influenced some monarchies.
Enlightenment thinkers helped the growth of democratic ideas.
In America, the Enlightenment inspired a struggle for independence.New Views on Government
John Locke was an English philosopher who argued that government was a contract between the rulers and the people. Government is for the good of the people.
Charles-Louis Montesquieu, a Frenchman, believed that government should be divided into separate branches in order to limit its power.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who was also French, criticized the power of divine right. He believed that government should express the will of the people.Democratic Ideas
The two countries had many disagreements that eventually led to war. This war cost England a lot of money.
The English decided to tax the colonies to make up for the cost of the war. People in England did not have to pay the tax.
The colonists thought that this was unfair, and that they should have the same rights as British citizens.British Policy in North America
Two leaders in particular—Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson—would apply those ideas to the colonists’ situation.
Franklin argued for the rights of the colonists. He believed the British were practicing “taxation without representation.”
Jefferson also believed that the British did not have the right to impose taxes on the colonists.
Both of these men were leaders in the American Revolution, and Jefferson later became president of the United States.The Colonists
The king of England and Parliament had a very uneasy relationship. This led to years of turmoil and changes in leadership.
William and Mary eventually became the rulers of England, after they promised to sign the English Bill of Rights.
The English Bill of Rights drew on the ideas of the Magna Carta, limiting the power of the rulers and recognizing some rights of the people.
This led to protests and unrest among the colonists. The colonists met during the First Continental Congress and decided to resist the British.
Fighting began in 1775, and in 1776 the colonial leaders met again and drafted the Declaration of Independence.
The Declaration of Independence stated the people’s right to certain liberties. The document begins with a sentence that expresses the ideas of the Enlightenment about natural rights.The American Revolution
Clergy were members of the First Estate, and nobles were members of the Second Estate, but most people belonged to the Third Estate.
The Third Estate paid the highest taxes and had the fewest privileges.
The Third Estate formed its own group, called the National Assembly, and some of its members were familiar with Enlightenment ideas.
This group demanded that the king accept a constitution limiting his powers.The French Social System
The revolution spread throughout France, and the National Assembly wrote a constitution. It was called the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
The king was forced to accept the constitution, but it was not enough. King Louis was put on trial and executed.
After the revolution, the Reign of Terror began, and France was in turmoil for many years.
The revolution was not a complete loss. Eventually France developed a democratic government.The Fall of the Bastille