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Author: Pamela H. Beck ●Date submitted to deafed.net-3/28/06 ●To contact the author for permission to use this PowerPoint, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ●To use this PowerPoint presentation in its entirety, please give credit to the author.
Cued Speech: Yesterday & Today Creation & Worldwide Adaptation Pamela H. Beck
The Inventor R. Orin Cornett, Ph.D., 1923 - 2002 • Auditory Perception (diplacusis meter) • Individuals often hear a single tone differently in each ear; • Dr. Cornett invented a meter to measure the difference in pitch as perceived by the two ears • Physics, Communication theory (codes), Education Administration
The shock! • U.S. Office of Education • Annual review of Gallaudet College for deaf students • Average deaf high school graduate read at the level of an 8 year old child • This is still true in the United States
The Goal • To find a reasonable, easy way to acquire a knowledge of spoken language as a base for reading. • Typical children know the spoken language well before they begin to read. • Everything, including reading, is taught via spoken language.
The Goal continued… • To find a system which enables the learning of phonemic language… • In a manner clear to the senses • Through conversational interaction between parents and child • Efficiently
The System • “In a manner clear to the senses” • Accurate • Visually clear • Important to hard-of-hearing as well as deaf individuals • Phonemic synchronization • Matching information from the articulators with the hand and the voice
Sensory-integrated • Receptive: • Links audition - vision - kinesthetic • Listening - lip-reading - speech modeling • phonemic awareness • Expressive: • Links motor - kinesthetic - listening • Like playing a musical instrument • Phonemic manipulation
First Family: the Henegars1966 Leah was 24 months old • Language growth after introducing language through Cued Speech • First 6 months: from 0 - 143 words • At 12 months: 307 additional words • = 450 words in the first year
Learning Language at Home • Children learn from their parents • Interacting • Observing
40 years later… • Leah has a career in office management • A mother of 3 children
The Expansion • 1967: Introduced to 98 educators • 2 from each state of the USA • 33 introduced it to their schools
Expansion continues *1968-69 • One traveling instructor 1969-70 • Two traveling instructors • Guidebook for parents • Manual for teachers
60+ Adaptations to other Languages 1970 • Spanish • Croatian-Serbian • Hindi • Swedish (revised 1993,1995) • Telegu
Some other adaptations • French 1971 • Danish 1976 • Dutch 1979 • Hebrew 1976 (rev.1984) • Mandarin 1975 (rev. 1985)
Finnish and Finnish-Swedish 1992 • June Dixon-Millar, Snellman, Cornett • Guidelines for adapting Cued Speech to additional languages • Cued Speech Journal vol. 5. pages 19 - 29
Deaf children bilingual in two or more spoken languages English/Arabic; /Mandarin; /Hindi / Hebrew; /German, etc.
Deaf Children Excelling —New Frontiers • Inclusion in regular schools • Inclusion in regular classrooms
Expanding visions • Regular teachers using Cued Speech in direct instruction (e.g., Leah Henegar) • Interpreting: parents pushed to introduce this • Transliteration/Transphonation • (French: “codeur”)
Expanding applications1970-80’s + • Speech articulation • Speech fluency (stuttering) • Mental retardation • Learning disabilities • Deaf-blind
Areas of Research • Auditory Discrimination • Visual speech reception • Receptive/expressive language • Reading • Bilingualism • Cochlear implantation use
Cueing & Signing: Together Cornett: 1975 The Balancing Act • Circus performers on two horses • Function in deaf community and hearing community • Communication skills + social / cultural orientation needed for acceptance • What is the priority?
Bilingualism Position Statement NCSA 1990 #1 • The language of the home = the language of the parents. • Fluent models of vocabulary and syntax • Hearing parents: spoken language • Deaf parents: visible language
Bilingualism #2 … • Substantial command of the phonological system of the language is needed before entering elementary school, as a base for reading & writing • Emphasize the [Finnish] language through Cued Speech in pre-school years
Bilingualism #3 If speech is a goal… training in audition and speech production is required.
Bilingualism #4 and #5 • Each language should be learned from persons who are good models of that language. • Encourage continuing dialogue about bilingualism.
Cued Speech provides • Cued phonemes • Cued listening • Cued language • Cued lip-reading • Cued speech
cued language…cued Finnish • Cued Speech = the system • cued language = the visible product • cued Finnish = the specific language
Many cuers who are deaf say: • Embrace diversity in communication • Communication can include or exclude people • Each mode of communication has its benefits • Knowing more than one mode is advantageous, like being multi-lingual
Hilary Franklin • Deaf people need to take advantage of ALL resources • An increasing number of deaf people are embracing diversity • Deaf parents of deaf children are having their children learn English through cueing at school • Bilingual (ASL and English): sign, cue, speak — and be literate!
2nd generation deaf cuers • The young deaf cuers of the 1970’s and 1980’s are now having children, some of whom are deaf • Cueing with their children from birth • Some are multilingual: spoken languages plus signed language
2nd generation deaf cuers • Their grandparents are providing them with full access to spoken language, just like they did with their parents!
Centers in Europe • France (Paris): ALPC • Belgium • Switzerland • Netherlands • UK (Dartmouth, Devon): Cued Speech Association, UK
Europe continued… • Spain • Madrid: Colegio Tres Olivos • La Asociacion Entender y Hablar • Malaga: Modelo Oral Complementado (MOC) • Girona: Crenag Narcis Maso • Ce La Macana
Use in other countries • Poland • Malaysia • India • Canada • Portugal • South Africa • Etc.
United States • National Cued Speech Association (1982) www.cuedspeech.org • State and local associations • Centers for instruction and advocacy: California, Illinois, New York, Maine • Cued Language Network of America • www.cuedlanguage.org (2002)
Activities • Camps: • Instruction • Implementation • Support • Networking • Fun
Instructor Certification • For those teaching Cued Speech to others • Future: For educators using Cued Speech in classroom and clinical settings
Transliterator Certification • Two options currently: national and state level • Educational Interpreter Proficiency Assessment (EIPA) for Cued Speech is being created with careful scientific validity
Advocacy • Federal laws and regulations • Collaborate with other organizations related to deafness • Seek federal funds
40th Anniversary Conference • July 20 - 23, 2006 • Preceded by CueSign Camp in same location www.cuesigncamp.com • Baltimore, Maryland area • Conference, gala dinner, • children’s program