Tips for Organic Chemistry Success. In order to successfully understand the various types of Organic molecules you should be able to identify each of the following for each type of molecule: Structural characteristics (know the functional group )
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disproved the idea of “vital force.”
- previously, it was thought that there were
two types of matter (based on heating):
cooking (required “vital force”)
Chains of atoms
Rings of atoms
The # of effective e- pairs around a center atom will determine the geometry of the molecule.
# e- pairs e- pair geometry
2 pairs linear
3 pairs trigonal planar
4 pairs tetrahedral
Remember, the e- pair geometry and the molecular geometry are NOT necessarily the same!
Complete Structures: draw all atoms and all bonds, showing relative shapes
Condensed Structures: write each alkyl (CHx) group separately.
Skeletal Structures: carbon atoms at each line junction, assume enough H’s; draw all heteroatoms & their H’s.
The number of carbons in a chain is identified according to the following:
# C name beginning
The end of the name is based on C-C bonding:
All single C-C bonds - end in “-ane”
One or more double C-C bonds end in “-ene”
One or more triple C-C bonds end in “-yne”Naming Organic Molecules
Functional groups contain a heteroatom, a multiple bond, or both and provide characteristic chemical & physical properties.
Abbreviating the hydrocarbon backbone:
R - fcn’l grp
ex. R - Br alkyl halide
R - OH alcohol (-OH is hydroxyl group)
R - COOH carboxylic acid(-COOH is carboxyl group)
Single the following:
Double (-C=O, carbonyl)
EstersSingle vs. Double bonds to Heteroatoms
Polarity of molecule is determined by electronegativity differences and shape of molecule.
Solubility: most are soluble in organic solvents
water solubility is based on size of molecule &
Organic pollutants affect the environment depending on their solubility.
Ex. DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichlorothane)
Water soluble: the following:
Lots of polar bonds & polar fcn’l groups
Typically smaller molecules
C and all the B’s
Lots of nonpolar bonds and few polar fcn’l groups
Typically larger molecules
A, D, E, KVitamins