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Cell Anatomy. Chapter 3. Objectives. Discuss the structure of a typical cell. Describe the molecular structure and function of cell membranes. Identify by name the organelles of the cell. Discuss the structure and function organelles of the cell.

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Cell anatomy

Cell Anatomy

Chapter 3


Objectives
Objectives

  • Discuss the structure of a typical cell.

  • Describe the molecular structure and function of cell membranes.

  • Identify by name the organelles of the cell.

  • Discuss the structure and function organelles of the cell.

  • Discuss the organization and generalized function of chromatin material in the nucleus.

  • Describe the different types of cell connections.


Functional anatomy of cells p 69
Functional Anatomy of Cells (p. 69)

  • The typical cell (Fig. 3-1)

    • 3 components (look on page 73)

  • Cell types (Table 3:1)

    • Give 3 examples


Cell membranes fig 3 2 table 3 3
Cell Membranes (Fig. 3-2, Table 3-3)

  • Fluid mosaic model

    • Phospholipid bilayer (Fig. 2-22)

      • Hydrophilic heads

      • Hydrophobic tails (99%)

      • Cholesterol scattered to aid function at body temp


Cell membranes fig 3 2 table 3 31
Cell Membranes (Fig. 3-2, Table 3-3)

  • Membrane proteins (Fig. 3-2)

    • Allow for controlled movement into and out of cell

    • Channel proteins

      • Glycoproteins act as identification markers

    • Receptor proteins

      • React to specific chemicals to permit different processes

    • Enzyme – catalyst with active sites


Cytoplasm and organelles p 73
Cytoplasm and Organelles (p. 73)

  • Cytosol

  • Membranous organelles (Table 3-2)

    • Endoplasmic reticulum (Figs. 3-5, 3-8)

    • Golgi apparatus (Figs. 3-4, 3-5, 3-8)

    • Lysosomes(Fig. 3-1)

    • Peroxisomes

    • Mitochondria (Figs. 3-6)

  • Non-membranous

    • Ribosomes (Figs. 3-3, 3-5)


Nucleus fig 3 7
Nucleus (Fig. 3-7)

  • Nuclear envelope

    • Similar to the plasma membrane of the cell

      • Holes called nuclear pores

  • Chromatin

    • Threads in non-dividing cells

    • When tightly wound = chromosomes (dividing cells)

  • Nucleolus

    • Small and non-membranous

    • Contains nucleic acids that are not DNA, but RNA


Cytoskeleton p 83
Cytoskeleton (p. 83)

  • Cell fibers (Figs. 3-8, 3-9)

    • Microfilaments = “cellular muscles”, cell shortening

    • Intermediate filaments = supporting framework

    • Microtubules = move things around in the cell

  • Centrosome(Figs. 3-1)

    • Coordinates building of things in the cell


Cytoskeleton p 831
Cytoskeleton (p. 83)

  • Cell extensions

    • Microvilli(Figs. 3-1; 3-10, A)

      • Found in the intestines to increase surface area and aide in absorption

    • Cilia (Fig. 3-10, B)

      • Flagella (Fig. 3-10, C)

        • Found only in human sperm cells


Cell connections fig 3 11
Cell Connections (Fig. 3-11)

  • Desmosomes

    • “spot welds”

    • Hold adjacent cells together

  • Gap junctions

    • Membrane channels, forming tunnels between cells

  • Tight junctions

    • “collars” , tight fusion, no permeation between cells

    • Found in intestines


Assignment
Assignment

  • Create a foldable in the shape of a cell

  • Each flap will be in the shape of the organelle

  • Must include

    • Function of organelle

    • Name of organelle



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