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Anatomy of the Cell. Cells differ (200 types), but share general structures Cells are organized into three main regions Nucleus Cytoplasm Plasma membrane. Figure 3.1a. The Nucleus - Control center. Contains genetic material (DNA) Nuclear envelope w/ pores Nucleolus Chromatin.

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anatomy of the cell
Anatomy of the Cell
  • Cells differ (200 types), but share general structures
  • Cells are organized into three main regions
    • Nucleus
    • Cytoplasm
    • Plasma membrane

Figure 3.1a

the nucleus control center
The Nucleus - Control center

Contains genetic material (DNA)

  • Nuclear envelope w/ pores
  • Nucleolus
  • Chromatin

Figure 3.1b

slide3
nucleus

nuclear

pores

chromatin
Chromatin
  • Composed of DNA and protein
  • Scattered throughout the nucleus
  • Chromatin condenses to form chromosomes when the cell divides
rough endoplasmic reticulum
Transport vesiclebuds off

4

Ribosome

Secretory(glyco-) proteininside transportvesicle

Sugarchain

3

Glycoprotein

1

2

ROUGH ER

Polypeptide

Rough endoplasmic reticulum
  • Makes proteins, membranes

Figure 4.8

slide6
The Golgi complex finishes, sorts, and ships cell products

Golgi apparatus

Golgiapparatus

“Receiving” side ofGolgi apparatus

Transportvesiclefrom ER

Newvesicleforming

“Shipping”side of Golgiapparatus

Transport vesiclefrom the Golgi

Figure 4.10

slide7
Lysosomes
  • sacs of digestive enzymes
    • digest food. bacteria
    • recycle damaged organelles
    • embryonic development
    • waste storage

Pombe’s disease - glycogen

Tay-Sachs disease - lipids

LYSOSOME

Nucleus

Figure 4.11A

slide8
Rough ER

Transport vesicle(containing inactivehydrolytic enzymes)

Plasmamembrane

Golgiapparatus

Engulfmentof particle

Lysosomeengulfingdamagedorganelle

“Food”

LYSOSOMES

Digestion

Foodvacuole

Figure 4.11B

smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  • synthesizes lipids
  • regulates carbohydrate metabolism (liver)
  • breaks down toxins and drugs (liver)
  • Stores Ca++ in muscle cells
slide10
cellular respiration provides energy

Mitochondrion

Outermembrane

Intermembranespace

Innermembrane

Cristae

Matrix

Figure 4.16

the cytoskeleton helps organize a cell s structure and activities
The CYTOSKELETON helps organize a cell’s structure and activities
  • network of protein fibers - microfilaments, microtubules

Figure 4.17A

cilia and flagella
Cilia and flagella
  • appendages that protrude from certain cells
  • Function: movement
  • Made of microtubules wrapped in the plasma membrane
  • Centrioles - movement of chromosomes in cell division
slide14
Animal cells - surrounded by an extracellular matrix
  • sticky layer of glycoproteins
  • binds cells together in tissues
  • protects and support cells
plasma membrane specializations
Plasma Membrane Specializations
  • Microvilli
    • increase surface area for absorption
  • Membrane junctions
    • Tight junctions
    • Desmosomes
    • Gap junctions

Figure 3.3

cells and tissues
Cells and Tissues
  • Cells = building blocks of all living things
  • Carry out chemical activities needed for life
  • Tissues are groups of cells that are similar in structure and function
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