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Anatomy. Chapter 1 Introduction to concepts. 5 Basic Functions of Life A. Reproduction B.Responsiveness C. Growth D.Movement and Metabolism. What is anatomy? It is the study of the internal and external structure of the body, and the physical relationships among body parts.

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Anatomy

Anatomy

Chapter 1

Introduction to concepts


The science of anatomy and physiology

5 Basic Functions of Life

A. Reproduction

B.Responsiveness

C. Growth

D.Movement and Metabolism

What is anatomy?

It is the study of the internal and external structure of the body, and the physical relationships among body parts

The Science of Anatomy and Physiology


What is physiology
What is Physiology?

  • It is the study of how living organisms perform their vital functions


Microscopic vs macroscopic

Considers the unseen

Divided into two areas

A. Cytology-study of cells

B. Histology-study of tissues

Gross anatomy-the seen

A. Surface anatomy-form and superficial marking

B. Regional anatomy

C. Systemic anatomy-OS

Microscopic vs Macroscopic


Human physiology
Human Physiology

  • 4 areas

  • A. Cell physiology

  • B. Special physiology

  • C. System physiology

  • D. Pathological physiology or pathology


Levels of organization

6 levels

A. Chemical or Molecular level

B. Cellular level

C. Tissue level

D. Organ level

E. Organ system level

F. Organism level

Levels of Organization


Organ system
Organ System

  • 11 organ systems

  • You will need to know the name of the organ system, the major function and the amount of organs in the system


Integumentary system
Integumentary system

  • Protection from environment and temperature control

  • 5 organs


Muscular system
Muscular System

  • Locomotion,

  • Support

  • Heat production

  • 1 organ


Skeletal system
Skeletal System

  • Support

  • Protection

  • Makes blood cells

  • 2 organs


Nervous system
Nervous System

  • Directing immediate response to stimuli

  • 2 organs


Endocrine systems
Endocrine Systems

  • Directing long term changes to other organ systems

  • 9 organs


Cardiovascular system
Cardiovascular System

  • Internal transport of cells

  • 3 organs


Lymphatic system
Lymphatic System

  • Defense against infection and disease

  • 4 organs


Respiratory system
Respiratory system

  • Delivery of air to sites where gas exchange can occur

  • 6 organs


Digestive system
Digestive System

  • Processing of food and absorption of nutrients, minerals, vitamins, and water

  • 9 organs


Urinary system
Urinary System

  • Elimination of excess water, cells, and waste products

  • 4 organs


Male reproductive system
Male Reproductive System

  • Production of sex cells and hormones

  • 3 organs


Female reproductive system
Female Reproductive System

  • Production of sex cells and hormones

  • 6 organs


Language of anatomy
Language of Anatomy

  • Surface Anatomy

  • Supine vs Prone



Directional terms of the body

1. Anterior

2. Ventral

3. Posterior

4. Dorsal

5. Cranial or Cephalic

6. Superior

1. The front; before

2. The belly side = anterior

3. The back;behind

4. The back= posterior

5. The head

6. Above; at the highest level

Directional Terms of the Body


Directional terms cont

7. Caudal

8. Inferior

9. Medial

10. Lateral

7. The tail

8. Below: at a lower level

9. Toward the body’s longitudinal axis

10. Away from the body’s longitudinal axis

Directional Terms (cont)


Directional terms cont1

11. Proximal

12. Distal

13. Superficial

14. Deep

11. Toward an attached base

12. Away from an attached base

13. At, near or relatively close to the body surface

14. Farther from body surface

Directional Terms (cont)


Anatomical regions
Anatomical regions

  • 4 abdominal pelvic quadrants

  • URQ

  • LRQ

  • ULQ

  • LRQ


Sectional anatomy
Sectional Anatomy

  • Transverse plane- lies at right angles to the long axis of the body dividing it into superior and inferior sections aka horizontal section or a cross section.

  • Frontal plane- aka coronal plane parallels the long axis of the body divides body into anterior and posterior sections


Sectional anatomy1
Sectional Anatomy

  • Saggital plane- divides body into left and right sections also parallels the long axis of the body


Body cavities
Body Cavities

  • Two functions

  • Dorsal body cavities- cranium(cranial cavity) and spinal cord (spinal cavity

  • Ventral body cavities- 2 parts


Homeostatis

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Homeostatis