Battle of Ypres Eric Zeng, Cassidy Daugherty, Arian Hafezi, Vanessa Ma
Thesis Despite the introduction of widespread chemical warfare during the Battle of Ypres, strong defense against the German Empire resulted in the protection of the city and victory for the Allies.
Background • German fail at Battle of Marne/Allied counterattacks → Race to the Sea • Ypres = key site for protection of channel seaports in the Race • Esp. important to Belgians - last portion of land under its sovereignty. Belgian-English alliance remember • Trench Warfare • By October 1914, the Allies had reached Nieuport on the North Sea Coast • German army to capture Antwerp • Force Belgian defenders to retreat to Nieuport, near Ypres.
First Battle of Ypres - 1914 • Race to the sea: German vs. Allied Forces as they all try to secure N. France’s ports • Germany uses the German Fourth Army, aka Kinder Corps (kinder = children) - majority of soldiers = young, inexperienced volunteers between ages 17-19 • Sub-battles (Langemarck, Gheluvelt, Nonnebosschen) = heavy losses for Germans, less for British/Allies • Encountered well-trained British Expeditionary Force • Allied (France, UK, Belgium) victory
Hill 60 • Everyone wanted Hill 60 • Strategic geographical position - overlooked Ypres / all the roads around it • British take initially take Hill 60 • Taken by Germans during First Battle of Ypres • Both sides accuse the other of using gas attacks • Finally retaken by Allies in 1918
Second Battle of Ypres - 1915 • The British took advantage of the winter season for warfare. • Massive German offensive attack • There were two new forms of warfare: • Chlorine Gas: Signaled the beginning • Flamethrowers: “Liquid Fire” • British/Canadians held the line against Germans, despite gas attacks • Essentially a stalemate • Main players: French/British Empire, Belgium vs. German Empire
Third Battle of Ypres - 1917 • American entrance into WWI hastens German defeat • AKA Battle of Passchendaele • Passchendaele = part of vital supply system for German Fourth Army • Lots of planning by British → blowing up 19 mines to hinder Germans • Heavy losses for Germans, few casualties for Allies • Tactical Allied (British Empire, France, Belgium) victory
Fourth Battle of Ypres - 1918 • Begins with German offense • Hoped to obliterate Allied forces before the arrival of Americans • British on defense, Germans captured several cities • Allies close to losing, a retreat allowed them to regroup at St. Omer • Messines and Passchendaele eventually retaken by British/Allies • Ypres was not captured
Fun Facts • Second Battle of Ypres = “Canada’s Baptism of Fire”/coming of age battle • Hitler was a corporal in the German army during the First Battle of Ypres
Works Cited (ish) http://www.greatwar.co.uk/ypres-salient/battles-ypres-salient.htm http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/battle_ypres.htm http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/ypres1.htm http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~dccfarr/summary.htm http://www.amazon.ca/Baptism-Fire-Second-Battle-Forging-ebook/dp/B00563K3B2