The Northern Renaissance. Pieter Brueghel the Elder. Born in Flanders in 1530. Known for his painting of peasants in the Realism style. Famous painting The Peasant Dance Relied on colorful, vivid detail & realism. Just like many Italian Renaissance painters.
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Pieter Brueghel the Elder • Born in Flanders in 1530. • Known for his painting of peasants in the Realism style. • Famous painting The Peasant Dance • Relied on colorful, vivid detail & realism. • Just like many Italian Renaissance painters. • Painted people as they were: show strengths & flaws
How did the Renaissance ideas that inspired Brueghal come to northern Europe?
Spread of Ideas • Trade & Travelers: • Italian businessmen had offices in cities throughout Europe: London & Geneva. • These businessmen lived in Italian Renaissance style regardless of where they were. • Europeans appreciated emphasis on wealth, beauty & personal achievement. • Other Europeans also traveled to Italy. • Brueghel went to study art. • Scholars went to the great library at the Vatican. • Visitors came to see the ancient ruins in Rome.
Spread of Ideas • Printed Word: • Hand written, until the development the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg. • German, invented and perfected a movable type printing press. • Allowed to quick printing of books. • Everything printed from the Bible, to Greek & Roman classics. • Literacy rates began to increase & book trade became major parts of fairs. • Books bought by churches, universities & individuals. • Help in spreading Humanism.
Spread of Ideas • Monarchs • With the spread of Humanism ideas, royal courts in France & England began to develop interest in learning & the arts. • Kings & Queens supported humanist scholars & artists. • King Francis I of France brought da Vinci and many other Italian artists & scholars to his court. • Helped firmly establish Renaissance values & ideas in northern Europe.
Ideas & Ideals • Northern Humanism differed from Italian Humanism. • Feudalism was stronger in northern. • Nobles instead of patrician families. • Secularism (non-religious ideas). • Individual achievement • However, northern Europeans also believed in the importance of spiritual life. • North & Italian studied ancient Greek & Roman literature, but north also learned Greek & Hebrew to study ancient bibles. • Leading to the questioning of church leadership. • Humanists believed church put too much emphasis on ceremony.
Desiderius Erasmus • Dutch priest and 16th century humanist. • Wanted to reform church. • Believed church teachings should be simple to understand and everyone should be able to read bible, not just clergy. • Traveled around Europe to spread his ideas and his books could be widely published, because of the printing press.
Achievements • Realism: • Realistic portrayal of people and nature in paintings and writings. • Sir Thomas More: • English statesman, scholar, author. • Lived from 1478 to 1535. • Using Renaissance idea of individual worth, he proposed that all men should be treated equally. • In his book Utopia, More describes rules of society were all men equal and work together to achieve happiness.
Achievements • William Shakespeare: • Born in England in 1564. • Poet, actor and master playwright. • Wanted to educate and entertain his audiences. • His characters full of life, wit and passion. • They reveal the strengths and weakness of people. • Plays built around historic figures: Julius Caesar & kings of England.
Achievements • Medicine: • Paracelsus: • Physician and chemist, discovered new way to treat illness. • Tiny doses of poisons to destroy diseased tissue. • Amboise Pare: • Developed bandage to replace practice of cauterizing or burning the edges of a wound. • First to use thread to close a wound. • Humanist of Northern tradition: “I treated him, God cured him.”
Questions: • 1) How did Feudalism in northern Europe make the character of the Renaissance different in the north than in Italy? • 2) How did the scholar Erasmus represent northern Humanism? • 3) Why was the printing press an important part of the Renaissance?