The Northern Renaissance. Writers of the Renaissance. The Start of It All. Realized that : Printing from woodcarvings couldn’t meet the huge demands for printed material Handwriting manuscripts just took too long A method for mass-production of books and printed material was needed
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The Northern Renaissance
The Start of It All Realized that: • Printing from woodcarvings couldn’t meet the huge demands for printed material • Handwriting manuscripts just took too long • A method for mass-production of books and printed material was needed • Invented the printing press, which remained relatively unchanged until the 1900s
Johannes Gutenberg -Invented the printing press.(c 1450) -Revolutionized the sharing of information. -Major contributor to the spread of the Renaissance
Setting The Text -First, dies had to be formed. -After a mold of a character was carved, it had to be cast into a die. -The dies were then arranged into words and columns of text.
The Final Printing After the page had been formed on the block: • The block of characters was attached to the press. • The page was placed under the block. • A screw was turned to press the block onto the paper with consistent, high pressure. • The block was lifted, and out came a crisp, clean page of text. • The process was repeated as many times as needed.
Impact • The printing press made a huge impact on: • The spread of the Renaissance • The sharing of ideas and information • Literature (it caused people to write more) • The Protestant Reformation, since everyone could have a copy of the Bible
Effect on Language • Many terms still remain from early presses such as • Leading • Gutter • Serif and sans-serif • Spelling was standardized • Upper- and lower-case letters were developed
Desidarius Erasmus The most influential humanist
Backround Information • A humanistorsomeonewhostudiesgrammar, rhetoric, history, and clasicaltexts. • Friendswith Thomas More whowroteUtopia • Entered a monastary as a teen and leftafterbeingordainedtogo back toclassicalstudies • Saddenedthatchristianscholars madethereligion more complicated and cermonial and lessspirtual. • Died of syphillis so severehis doctor hadtotreathimfromthedoor
Letters • One of thethousands of letters he wrotetopeople of differentcountries. • Peoplefromkingstoordinaryclerks. • Only 3,000 of the 20,000 remain.
ThePraise of Folly • A softattackonthe abuses in thechurch and elsewhere. • Tribute tothe simple christianfaith of children. • Makingfun of foolishbehaviorlikebelieving in superstitions.
Other Works • TheAdages - a bookonethicalbehavior • TheEducation of the Christian Prince - in thesamegenre as Machiavelli’sThe Prince. • Edition of theGreek New Testament
The Life of Sir Thomas More • Born in 1478. • 1516 published Utopia. • Became a close friend of Desidarius Erasmus. • Beheaded in 1535 by Henry VIII.
Utopia • Published in 1516 • A book that criticized society • Created imaginary society • Utopia- “an ideal place or society”
"The King's good servant, but God's First" • Resigned in 1532, citing ill health, but the reasons was probably his dislike of Henry's stance toward the church. • 1534, More refused to swear to the Act of Succession and the Oath of Supremacy, and was committed to the Tower of London on April 17.
St. Thomas More • More was found guilty of treason and was beheaded on July 6, 1535. • More was canonized by the Catholic Church as a saint by Pope Pius XI in 1935.
Shakespeare’s Life • BornApril 23, 1564 in Stratford. • Fatherwas a merchant and mothercamefrom a well-to-do family. • Wasfluent in Latin and Greek. • In 1582, William Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway. He was 18. • Ann Hathawaywaseightyearsolderthenhim.
His Life • 1585 they had twins, Hamnet and Judith. • No one knows of his whereabouts between 1586 and 1592. • In 1592 he lived in London and was both an actor and dramatist. • Moved to Italy in 1594 because the Black Death, or plague, was disrupting theater life in London. • DiedApril 23, 1616.
Shakespeare and his work • William Shakespeare wrote a great amount of plays in his lifetime. Of these plays they were separated into three different categories. • The first, being comedies, were meant to portray a humorous feeling to the audience. • The second, being tragedies, were created with a sense of sadness and pain. In these particular plays, many of the actors died by the end of the story. • The third, being histories, were stories that told of someone who really existed. An example of this would be Shakespeare’s play Julius Caesar, (which he wrote in 1599). Many famous plays of his today are tragedies.
TheTragedies • Alltragedies are writtenwithinthesameplot idea. • The “hero” neverappearsuntillater in theplay, butyouhear of himfromtheothercharacters. • The “hero” isalwaysstrong and bravebut has somekind of flaw. • Theyallend in marriage.
A Midsummer Night’s Dream • Written in 1596. • Poked fun at “love at first sight”. • Considered some of Shakespeare’s best work.
The Taming of the Shrew • Written in 1592 • Differentfromany of hisothercomedieswith short temperedcharacters and verbal wit. • The Taming of the Shrew, was another tragedy that can be seen in the movie, 10 things I hate about you. This is not an exact replica of Shakespeare’s story by any means. However, the ideas are alike.
Hamlet • Hamlet, was one of Shakespeare’s greatest tragedies. • It was written in and is a twisting story of devious actions, murder, and most of all emotional pain.
Romeo and Juliet • Romeo and Juliet, was another famous tragedy. • This particular story demonstrates a sense of passion. • In this play, a couple that is forbidden to be together, is forced to adapt to the cruelty of reality.
Art of The Northern Renaissance
Renaissance Art in Northern Europe • Should not be considered an appendage to Italian art. • But, Italian influence was strong. • Painting in OIL, developed in Flanders, was widely adopted in Italy. • The differences between the two cultures: • Italy change was inspired by humanism with its emphasis on the revival of the values of classical antiquity. • No. Europe change was driven by religious reform, the return to Christian values, and the revolt against the authority of the Church. • More princes & kings were patrons of artists.
Characteristics of Northern Renaissance Art • The continuation of late medieval attention to details. • Tendency toward realism & naturalism [less emphasis on the “classical ideal”]. • Interest in landscapes. • More emphasis on middle-class and peasant life. • Details of domestic interiors. • Great skill in portraiture.
Jan van Eyck • Flemish painter who was a contemporary of Ghiberti • Used oil base paint to create subtle colors in clothing and jewelry • Exceptionally realistic • Influenced other northern European artists
Jan van Eyck (1395 – 1441) • More courtly and aristocratic work. • Court painter to the Duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good. • The Virgin and Chancellor Rolin, 1435. • Painted with oil
Rogier van der Weyden (1399-1464) The Deposition 1435
Quentin Massys (1465-1530) • Belonged to the humanist circle in Antwerp that included Erasmus. • Influenced by da Vinci. • Thomas More called him “the renovator of the old art.” • The Ugly Dutchess, 1525-1530
Renaissance Art in France • A new phase of Italian influence in France began with the French invasions of the Italian peninsula that began in 1494. • The most important royal patron was Francis I. • Actively encouraged humanistic learning. • Invited da Vinci and Andrea del Sarto to France. • He collected paintings by the great Italian masters like Titian, Raphael, and Michelangelo.
Matthias Grünewald (1470-1528) • Converted to Lutheranism. • Possibly involved in the Peasants’ Revolt on the peasants side. • Depictions of intense emotion, especially painful emotion. • The Mocking of Christ, 1503
Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528) • The greatest of German artists. • A scholar as well as an artist. • His patron was the Emperor Maximilian I. • Also a scientist • Wrote books on geometry, fortifications, and human proportions. • Self-conscious individualism of the Renaissance is seen in his portraits. • Self-Portrait at 26, 1498.
A German artist and humanist Best known for his woodcuts and paintings which emphasized realism Traveled to Italy He produced and sold thousands of copies of his work which spread renaissance styles and inspired German artists Early Self portrait Albrecht Durer (1471-1528)