The Northern Renaissance The Spread of Humanism
Printing Press (c. 1456) • Johann Gutenberg – spread of humanistic literature to rest of Europe. • By 1480, 380 printing presses in Europe (1000 by 1500)
Christian Humanism • Attempted to find a balance between religious and secular concerns • Rejected the “otherworldliness” of the Middle Ages. • Emphasis on early church writings for answers to improve society.
Christian Humanist Writers • Desiderius Erasmus (Erasmus of Rotterdam) (1466-1536) – In Praise of Folly; most famous intellectual of his times, criticized the church: “Erasmus lay the egg that Luther hatched”
Christian Humanist Writers • Thomas More (1478-1536) – Utopia – creates ideal society on an island; but to achieve harmony and order people have to sacrifice individual rights
Christian Humanist Writers • Jacques Lefevre d’Etables (1454-1536): leading French humanist; produced 5 versions of the Psalms that challenged a single authoritative Bible. • Francesco Ximenes de Cisneros (1436-1517): reformed Spanish clergy and church, Grand Inquisitor of the Spanish Inquisition
Northern Renaissance Arts • Low Countries (Dutch Republic, Flanders and parts of Germany, etc) produced especially important artists. • Jan and Hubert Van Eyck • First successful use of oil painting • Worked mainly in Ghent, Belgium.
Peter Brueghel (1520-1569) • Focused on lives of ordinary people. • Painted great landscapes • Also worked on religious subjects • Completed most of his work in Antwerp and Brussels
Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) • German – foremost northern Renaissance artist • Famous for woodcuts and engravings. • Paintings include a number of self protraits
Hans Holbein the Younger (1497-1543) • Son of Gothic artist. • German painter who studied in Italy • Painted portraits of Erasmus, Thomas More, King Henry VIII, his wives, and Mary Tudor
Vernacular Writers • France • Francois Rabelais’ (1494-1553) Gargantua and Pantagruel • Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) Essays relativist in religion and morality
Vernacular Writers • England • Edmund Spenser • Christopher Marlowe • William Shakespeare • Ben Jonson
Vernacular Writers • Spain • Miguel de Cervantes • Felix Lope de Vega