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The Northern Renaissance. The Spread of Humanism. Printing Press (c. 1456). Johann Gutenberg – spread of humanistic literature to rest of Europe. By 1480, 380 printing presses in Europe (1000 by 1500). Christian Humanism. Attempted to find a balance between religious and secular concerns

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the northern renaissance

The Northern Renaissance

The Spread of Humanism

printing press c 1456
Printing Press (c. 1456)
  • Johann Gutenberg – spread of humanistic literature to rest of Europe.
  • By 1480, 380 printing presses in Europe (1000 by 1500)
christian humanism
Christian Humanism
  • Attempted to find a balance between religious and secular concerns
  • Rejected the “otherworldliness” of the Middle Ages.
  • Emphasis on early church writings for answers to improve society.
christian humanist writers
Christian Humanist Writers
  • Desiderius Erasmus (Erasmus of Rotterdam) (1466-1536) – In Praise of Folly; most famous intellectual of his times, criticized the church: “Erasmus lay the egg that Luther hatched”
christian humanist writers1
Christian Humanist Writers
  • Thomas More (1478-1536) – Utopia – creates ideal society on an island; but to achieve harmony and order people have to sacrifice individual rights
christian humanist writers2
Christian Humanist Writers
  • Jacques Lefevre d’Etables (1454-1536): leading French humanist; produced 5 versions of the Psalms that challenged a single authoritative Bible.
  • Francesco Ximenes de Cisneros (1436-1517): reformed Spanish clergy and church, Grand Inquisitor of the Spanish Inquisition
northern renaissance arts
Northern Renaissance Arts
  • Low Countries (Dutch Republic, Flanders and parts of Germany, etc) produced especially important artists.
  • Jan and Hubert Van Eyck
    • First successful use of oil painting
    • Worked mainly in Ghent, Belgium.
peter brueghel 1520 1569
Peter Brueghel (1520-1569)
  • Focused on lives of ordinary people.
  • Painted great landscapes
  • Also worked on religious subjects
  • Completed most of his work in Antwerp and Brussels
albrecht durer 1471 1528
Albrecht Durer (1471-1528)
  • German – foremost northern Renaissance artist
  • Famous for woodcuts and engravings.
  • Paintings include a number of self protraits
hans holbein the younger 1497 1543
Hans Holbein the Younger (1497-1543)
  • Son of Gothic artist.
  • German painter who studied in Italy
  • Painted portraits of Erasmus, Thomas More, King Henry VIII, his wives, and Mary Tudor
vernacular writers
Vernacular Writers
  • France
    • Francois Rabelais’ (1494-1553) Gargantua and Pantagruel
    • Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) Essays relativist in religion and morality
vernacular writers1
Vernacular Writers
  • England
    • Edmund Spenser
    • Christopher Marlowe
    • William Shakespeare
    • Ben Jonson
vernacular writers2
Vernacular Writers
  • Spain
    • Miguel de Cervantes
    • Felix Lope de Vega