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LEADERSHIP. Questions from our readings or from last week’s class. GROUP ASSIGNMENT Using the assigned reading as your foundation, how does your group see the following skills as being important to leaders and leadership? Prepare a short verbal presentation. Group 1: Communication

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  1. LEADERSHIP Questions from our readings or from last week’s class

  2. GROUP ASSIGNMENTUsing the assigned reading as your foundation, how does your group see the following skillsas being important to leaders and leadership?Prepare a short verbal presentation • Group 1: Communication • Group 2: Conflict Resolution • Group 3: Decision Making • Group 4: Problem Solving • Group 5: Trust Building/Development • Group 6: Strategic Thinking


  4. Learning Objectives • Define leadership and leadership effectiveness. • Identify the cultural values that have the potential to affect leadership. • Discuss the major obstacles to effective leadership. • Compare and contrast leadership and management and understand their similarities and differences. • List the roles and functions of management and be aware of cultural differences in the use and application of those functions. • Summarize the debate over the role and impact of leadership in organizations.

  5. Definition of Leadershipfrom the textbook Leadership is the ability and the willingness to influence other so that they respond willingly. By James G. Clawson

  6. A Definition of a Leader A leader is any person who influences individuals and groups within an organization, helps them in the establishment of goals, and guides them toward achievement of those goals, thereby allowing them to be effective. By Afsaneh Nahavandi

  7. Keys Elements of the Definition of Leadership • Leadership is a group phenomenon • Leaders guide and influence others • Leadership involves some form of hierarchy in the group

  8. Definition ofLeadership Effectiveness Leaders are effective when their followers achieve their goals, can function well together, and can adapt to the changing demands from external forces. By AfsanehNahavandi

  9. Leaders are Effective When: • The group achieves its goals • Internal processes are smooth • The group can adapt to external forces

  10. Effective Managers Satisfied followers Productive Focus on communication Active conflict management Motivate, train and develop employees Successful Managers Quick promotions Focus on networking Interact with outsiders Socialize Active in office politics Effective vs. Successful Managers

  11. 10 STEPS to Effective Leadership… • Learn from your mistakes • Exercise self-control • Always be considerate • Do the best you can • Encourage others often • Respect the rights of others • Shoulder your responsibility • Have a good attitude • Infect others with enthusiasm • 10. Practice perseverance • Author unknown

  12. Points of View • Follower’s Point of View • Bureaucrat’s Point of View • Administrator’s Point of View • Contrarian’s Point of View

  13. Leadership Point of View • Seeing what needs to be done • Understanding the underlying forces at play in a situation • Initiating action to make things better

  14. Please add the following numbers in your head…

  15. 1000

  16. 40

  17. 1000

  18. 30

  19. 1000

  20. 20

  21. 1000

  22. 10

  23. What is the sum?

  24. DEFINITION Leadership is about managing energy, first in yourself and then in those around you. from Level Three Leadership by James Clawson

  25. VABE’s • Values • Assumptions • Beliefs • Expectations



  28. “Leaders have to be continually broadening their vision and deepening their insight into the global, societal, market, competitive, consumer, and related issues that surround any organization.”from Level Three Leadership by James Clawson

  29. “Many aspects of the Information Age shape our thinking about organizations and leadership. In this new age, power revolves around the people who coordinate resources to meet customer needs. Information becomes the key competitive and managerial advantage.”from Level Three Leadership by James Clawson

  30. Peter Senge’sTHE LEARNING ORGANIZATION“characterized by widely distributed power and structures that recognize much better the value of all organization members receiving, processing, and making decisions from new and explodingoceans of information.”from Level Three Leadership by James Clawson

  31. Rate of change in society 1900 1950 2000 Rural/Agriculture Urbanization/Industrial Global/Information Text – pg 44

  32. INFOCRACIESVS.BUREAUCRACYfrom Level Three Leadership by James Clawson

  33. Primogeniture Max Weber Warren Bennis ARISTOCRACY BUREAUCRACY INFOCRACY Through 18th Century 19th and 20th Century Information Age TIME Power is distributed by gender and lineage Assumption is, “Father knows best.” Power is distributed by gender and office. Assumption is, “Boss knows best.” Power is distributing to key process contributors (KPCs) Assumption is, “KPCs Know best.” Text – pg 48

  34. Environmental Forces LEADER Strategic Thinking Influence Shared vision OTHERS TASK Organizational design Employee Bonding Managing Change ORGANIZATION

  35. VCMThe ability to influence others could be clustered into three areas:VisionCommitmentManagement Skills

  36. Leading Strategic Changecan only occur on at least three levels • ORGANIZATIONAL • WORK GROUP • INDIVIDUAL

  37. Basic Levels of Human Activity • Level One: BEHAVIORS • Level Two: CONSCIOUS THOUGHTS • Level Three: VABE’s • Values, Assumptions, Beliefs, and Expectations

  38. Definition of Culture • Commonly held values within a group of people • Set of norms, customs, values, and assumptions • Guides behaviors • Makes a group unique • Makes a group different from other groups

  39. Organizational culture Organizational culture Organizational culture Organizational culture Three Levels of Culture v

  40. Ed Schein’sThree levels of cultural manifestations • Artifacts • The visible structures and process of a culture • Espoused Values • The conscious justifications for behavior • Basic Underlying Assumptions • The “unconscious, taken-for-granted beliefs, perceptions, thoughts, and feelings” that drive culture

  41. Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions • Power distance • Uncertainty avoidance • Individualism • Masculinity • Time orientation

  42. Hosftede’s Individualism/Collectivism In collectivist cultures: • Self-defined as dependent on in-group • Group’s goals are given priority over individual’s • Social norms determine social behavior • Relationships based on communal terms • Friend and self are close • Enemy is far • OK to lie to out-group members

  43. Hosftede’s Individualism/Collectivism (cont’d) In individual cultures: • Self is autonomous from group • Personal goals are given priority over in-group’s • Attitudes determine social behavior • Relationships based on exchange • Others are far and removed from self

  44. Hosftede’s Individualism/Collectivism (cont’d) Horizontal: Emphasis on equality Vertical: Emphasis on hierarchy

  45. Vertical Collectivist (VC) Rank and status among members Obedience to authority Sacrifice of self Horizontal Collectivist (HC) Members are equal No hierarchy Consensus Hosftede’s Individualism/Collectivism (cont’d)

  46. Vertical Individualist (VI) Individual considered unique and superior to other individuals Horizontal Individualist (HI) Individual considered unique, but not superior to others Hosftede’s Individualism/Collectivism (cont’d)

  47. Egalitarian Person Task Hierarchical Trompenaars’ Cross-Cultural Organizational Cultures INCUBATOR Individual-oriented Leader removes obstacles Focus on individual growth GUIDED MISSILE Performance-oriented Leader is a guide Focus on achieving common goal FAMILY Power-oriented Leader is caring parent Focus on building relationships EIFFEL TOWER Rigid and robust Leader is undisputed legitimate boss Focus on rational performance

  48. Obstacles To Effective Leadership • Environmental uncertainty • Organizational rigidity • Lack of opportunity to practice • Relying on simplistic solutions • Inaccessible research

  49. Management And Leadership • Leaders • Focus on the future • Create change • Create a culture based on shared values • Establish emotional link with followers • Use personal power • Managers • Focus on the present • Maintain status quo • Implement policies and procedures • Remain aloof and maintain objectivity • Use position power

  50. Leader’s Function In ShapingOrganizational Culture LEADER Role Reward Hiring Structure Model System Decisions & Strategy CULTURE

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