HM: The Problem of Evidence • Primary • Secondary • Tertiary • Bias
HM: The Problem of Objectivity • Source Bias • Historian Bias • Is Objective History Possible?
HM: The Problem of Causation • Great Men? • Impersonal Forces
HM: The Problem of Motives • Deciphering Witness Statements • Lack of Witness Statements • Actions Speak Louder Than Words • Economic vs. Idealistic
The Stone Age: 1-2 Million BC to 3,500 BC • Paleolithic: 1-2 Million BC to 10,000 BC • Humans become Human • Hunter-Gatherer Lifestyle Mesolithic: 10,000 BC to 6,000 BC • Humans begin to domesticate animals and plants • Better tools Neolithic: 7,000 BC to 3,500 BC • Agriculture begins • First villages and towns; Civilization begins
The Bronze Age: 3,500 BC to 1200 BC • Early Bronze Age (c.3500-2000 BC) • Metalworking begins • Age of the City-State Middle Bronze Age (c.2000-1600 BC) • Nomadic tribes gain bronze and challenge the urban civilizations Late Bronze Age (c.1600-1200 BC) • Society now develops to incorporate large, powerful kingdoms with sophisticated bureaucracies able to rule over large areas and coordinate powerful trade networks.
Iron Age: 1200-500 BC • Ironworking now predominates • Barbarians ravage Bronze Age States • Rise of Large Scale Empires
Age of Agricultural Empires (500 BC – 1789 AD) • Human society dominated by Agriculture • Empires exist, limited by communications and terrain • The Malthusian Cycle dominates • Growth: More land than people • Apogee: Just enough land for everyone • Decline: Too many people, not enough land, corruption, war, famine, death, destruction • Go back to square 1 once enough die.