Life in British North America in 1800’s Chapter Five
Facts and Figures The Great Colonies of Great Britain were: • Vancouver Island • Nova Scotia • Prince Edward Island • The Province of Canada • Newfoundland • New Brunswick • All important decisions were made by government of Great Britain • Rupert’s Land, the North Western Territory and New Caledonia were under the control of the British Fur Trading Company called the Hudson Bay Company
Population • In 1851, the population of British North America was approximately 2 536 000. (this was a small population for the area of land) • One of the largest population was in the eastern colonies • The largest city was Montreal with a population of 58,000 (Canada East) and In the Maritimes was Saint John, New Brunswick with 30,000 • Europeans were the majority of the population and minority was the First Nations and Inuit • 85% of the population was rural • 15% of the population was urban
Economics • Controlled by the European Settlers • The Pre-Industrial Economy was in place from the natural resources such as fur, fish, timber and farmland. • First Nations struggled to survive, some adapted taking jobs in this new economy. In the area of HBC—Aboriginals participated in fur trade.
Read: A Closer Look p.79 • Read about the New Economy of British North America • Come up with the a list of possible jobs in the different colonies during this time.
The People of British North America • Immigrants: are individuals who come to live in a county that is not part of their original home. • 2/3 of the European population in the 1800 was of British or Irish Heritage • Their experience was based solely on their background and how long they lived in British North America.
The Different Groups were: The Elite • These were the individuals in society that had more political, economic and social power than the majority • Made up of British heritage who have lived in the colonies for several generations. • Many were descendants of United Empire Loyalists: individuals from the United States that sided with Great Britain and came to Canada after the American Revolution • Merchants in Newfoundland who controlled the fishing industry were elite.
What defined the Elite?https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oklPl95DC8c • Clothes • Control of Power • “Snobbish” • Better than thou Attitude
Newer Immigrants • 800,000 English, Scottish and Irish immigrants came to British North America due to hardships in their homelands • English and Scottish adapted well—and worked hard to move up in society Irish • The English were prejudiced against the Irish due to religious differences • They faced discrimination is different pars of the colony. • Read A Closer Look Feature on p.84
People of French Heritage Two main groups of French: • French in Canada East • Acadians Small elite—Most were habitants: farmers who lived in rural areas. • Great Britain took over French Colonies in 1763. They were given special rights • Lived in fear of becoming a minority and losing their rights. • Acadia was the name for first permanent French settlements in North America.
Aboriginals Peoples • By the mid 1800’s the European settlers had a huge impact on the First Nations which was felt strongly throughout the Atlantic Region • Colony leaders were treating the First Nations no longer as a separate nations. • Racist ideas were inflicted onto the First Nations
Loss of Land • The Europeans needed more land from the First Nations either through Treaties or government bought land • When the First Nations complained they would give them land but never controlled settlers from taking over the land • In the end, they were left with poor quality land which led to poverty and many faced starvation.
Drop In Population: First Nations Population dropped because of: • Disease: for example: Measles, Tuberculosis and smallpox • Poverty: (lack of Nutrition) Made them Weak • Lack of Resistance: First Contact with diseases led to whole communities being whipped out.
Black Colonists: • American Slaves that fled to Canada to become “free” • At the time of the American Revolution approximately 3000 Black Loyalists came to BNA • The Land given to these colonists were not large and fought for official “title” • But they did set up education, medical care and churches to their people
Slavery Outlawed • Another wave of Black immigration happened after slavery was outlawed in BNA • 30,000 slaves came from the States to escape. • Many settled in all parts of BNA but most joined Canada West (Ontario) Other settled in: • Nova Scotia • New Brunswick • Rupert’s Land • Vancouver Island
Opportunities For Black Colonists • None had same opportunities as white colonists • They received poor land and low wages • As colonies grew—Black Colonists were forced further and further away from resources like roads and water.
Daily Life in British North America Homes: • Your home and furnishings depended on your wealth. • Light would come from candles or oil • Heat would be from a fireplace • There was no indoor plumbing • Water came from wells and outdoor springs Transportation: • One of the biggest challenges • Travelled mostly by river—Roads were rough • They would use oxen, horse or foot—In the winter they would rely on sleighs. First railway was in 1836.
Daily Life Continued Healthcare: • Few families excepted all of their children who grow into adulthood. • Epidemics were quite common in communities • Lack of proper medical care—resulted in a lot more natural remedies. The Aboriginals taught the settlers what they knew. • Small accidents could be deadly. Education: • Not deemed as essential • Books were seen as prize possessions • In the early colonies—schools were used to teach proper behavior and religious education. • Publicly funded schools were partly paid by tax money.