Chapter Five: Earth’s Atmosphere • 5.1 The Atmosphere • 5.2 Layers of the Atmosphere • 5.3 Earth is Just Right
Investigation 5B Heating Land and Water • How does solar radiation affect the heating and cooling of continents and oceans?
5.3 Earth is just right • Earth’s surface temperature stays within a narrow range—it is not too hot or too cold. • The average temperature of Earth’s surface is about 15 °C.
5.3 Heat transfer and water • The Sun’s heat reaches Earth by a heat transfer process called radiation. • Once heat has arrived on Earth, there are three ways that it moves through the atmosphere: radiation, convection, and conduction.
5.3 Heat transfer and water • Compared to land surfaces, water has a high specific heat. • Having a higher specific heat means that it takes more energy to raise a substance’s temperature. • Once the substance is warm, it takes longer to cool off.
5.3 Earth’s motion • The motion of Earth also helps to balance its surface temperature. • Rotationis the turning motion of a planet as it spins. • It takes one day for Earth to make one complete spin. Spinning a basketball on your finger is a good example of rotation.
5.3 Earth’s motion • Revolutionis the motion of a planet around its star, like a race car that moves around and around a circular track.
5.3 Temperature and Earth’s rotation • Even though Earth is farther away from the Sun than Mercury, our night side never gets as cold as Mercury’s night side. • One day on Mercury lasts for about 58 Earth days!
6.1 Revolution and Earth’s seasons • Earth has seasons because it is tilted on its axis.
Research Connection Hurricane Hunters • If there's a hurricane to be hunted, it's usually done by one of the specially equipped NOAA planes. • A typical flight can last up to eight hours and cover over 2000 nautical miles. • It's not your typical vacation fight.
Activity Bernoulli’s Principle • Because air flows around objects, a baseball pitcher can throw a “sinker,” an airplane can fly, and a golf ball can soar for long distances. • Demonstrate Bernoulli’s principle three different ways using these activities.