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Communism in Crisis: 1976 – 1991. IB Paper One Document Analysis. Topics to be covered, China:. Power struggle after Mao’s death and the defeat of the Gang of Four China under Deng Xiaoping and 4 Modernizations Political changes/ Tiananmen Square. Topics to be covered: USSR.

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Communism in Crisis: 1976 – 1991

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communism in crisis 1976 1991

Communism in Crisis:1976 – 1991

IB Paper One

Document Analysis

topics to be covered china
Topics to be covered, China:
  • Power struggle after Mao’s death and the defeat of the Gang of Four
  • China under Deng Xiaoping and 4 Modernizations
  • Political changes/ Tiananmen Square
topics to be covered ussr
Topics to be covered: USSR
  • Domestic and foreign problems of Brezhnev era
  • Economic and political stagnation
  • Afghanistan
  • Gorbachev’s aims, perestroika and glasnost
  • Consequences of 1980s policies for Eastern Europe (Poland and Czechoslovakia)
things to remember
Things to remember…
  • OPVL…always…
  • We have access to documents from USSR, which has allowed some objective secondary research in recent years
  • Accounts from China outside the official view are hard to come by, and largely anecdotal
  • Question inherent assumptions in prompts and sources (IB really likes this)
  • 1976: Mao dies
  • Hua Guofeng is designated successor
  • Gang of Four (led by Jiang Qing) jockey for power
  • Struggle ensues between Right and Left
  • Hua Guofeng is neutral
    • “Two Whatevers”
gang of four
Gang of Four
  • Led by Jiang Qing
  • Radical Leftists, drivers of Cultural Revolution
  • Power in media, urban militia, universities
  • Eliminate revisionism and Four Olds
  • Allied with Mao’s nephew – Mao Yuanxin
  • Cut short mourning period for Zhou Enlai
    • Qingming Festival turns into a protest, riot, crackdown
gang of four bid for power
Gang of Four Bid for Power
  • Gang of Four see Hua as weak and malleable
  • Losing base of support, plan a coup
  • Includes assassinations of Hua and other party officials
  • General Chen and Su report plans to Hua
  • Gang of Four arrested and denounced
end of gang of four
End of Gang of Four
  • Years in prison before trial
  • Celebrations and denounced as enemies of the people
  • Show trial
  • Death sentences and long prison sentences
  • Blamed for excesses of Cultural Revolution
  • “10 Lost Years”
  • Led by Deng Xiaoping
  • Support in moderates, rightists, military
  • Deng rehabilitated after 3rd purge
  • Four Modernizations
  • Soon moved away from Hua’s “2 whatevers”
10 year plan way better than 5
10 Year Plan (way better than 5)
  • Driven by incentives and catching up
  • Military:
    • Modernize technology
  • Science and Technology:
    • Reform education, send students overseas
  • Industry:
    • Heavy industry, SOE’s, limited autonomy
  • Agriculture:
    • Mechanize, Household Responsibility System
adding foreign capital
Adding foreign capital
  • Open Door Policy
    • Nixon visits in 1972
    • Diverisfy
    • Need managerial and technical training
  • Special Economic Zones
    • Special zones for foreign investment to limit exposure to west
    • Lenient economic policies
  • Huge economic growth (11%)
  • Specialists training abroad had to adjust to outdated systems at home
  • Consumer choice grew
  • Pollution and deforestation
  • Party members still privileged
  • Resentment growing…
political reforms
Political Reforms
  • Criticism of Gang of Four led to greater criticism
  • Democracy Wall becomes a forum for public dissent
  • Pro-democracy advocates growing
  • “5th Modernization”
    • Wei Jingsheng (show trial, 15 years)
more political reforms
More Political Reforms
  • Deng travels, seeking new markets and allies
  • Foreign journalists (like Jan Wong) allowed to report from within China
  • Intellectuals allowed some criticism
  • 1986: students encouraged to participate in government
    • Demonstrate for better conditions and freedoms
lead up to tiananmen square
Lead-up to Tiananmen Square
  • Hu Yaobang dies (General Secretary) in April
  • Mourning turns into criticism and calls for social change
  • Students lead demonstrations in Tiananmen Square
  • Includes pro-democracy movement and “Goddess of Democracy” statue
tiananmen square june 1989
Tiananmen Square, June 1989
  • Zhao Ziyang (new Gen. Sec) tries to work with protesters
  • Students intensify protest, hunger strikes
  • Global attention due to Gorbachev’s visit
    • Foreign press in town
  • Deng orders military to seize control
  • 100s killed, riots suppressed
    • “Tank Man”
  • World supported protestors
  • Very little official response to repression
  • Leaders rounded up and arrested
  • “Most Favored Nation” status renewed in US
  • Zhang purged
  • Economic liberalization NOT political
ussr brezhnev era
USSR: Brezhnev Era
  • Economic Stagnation
  • Years of poor harvests lead to morale and productivity declines
  • Consumer goods limited and poor quality
  • Thriving ‘black market’
  • 25% GNP spent on military (missile gap)
dissent in ussr
Dissent in USSR
  • Samizdat
    • Self-published illegal pamphlets distributed in USSR
  • Tamizdat
    • Smuggled illegal pamphlets published abroad
  • Minorities and non-Russians
    • Using Helsinki Accords 1975 to advocate for equal treatment
political stagnation
Political Stagnation
  • Gerontocracy: rule by elderly
  • Very conservative
  • No new ideas or leaders
  • “stability” meant stagnation
foreign policy challenges
Foreign Policy Challenges
  • Brezhnev Doctrine – limited sovereignty
  • Keep communist regimes in place, protect from internal and external threats
  • Détente: SALT
  • Arms limitation
  • Role in Angolan revolution, Somalia, Mozambique
afghanistan 1979 1989
Afghanistan 1979 - 1989
  • Rebel forces, Mujahideen, oppose PDPA
  • Mujahideen assassinate PDPA leaders, Soviet advisors…civil war brewing
  • Invasion to support PDPA, invoking Brezhnev Doctrine
  • 10 year intervention, 10,000s lives lost
  • “USSR’s Vietnam”
  • CIA supported Mujahadeen
andropov and chernenko
Andropov and Chernenko
  • Brezhnev dies 1982
  • Continuation of much the same policies
  • Supported suppression of Polish Solidarity movement
  • Poor relations with USA
  • Gorbachev takes power in 1985
gorbachev 1985 1989
Gorbachev, 1985-1989
  • 54 = young and vital!
  • Reformer
  • Sought to repair an ailing system
  • “the worst time for a regime to reform is when it is in crisis”
gorbachev s reforms
Gorbachev’s Reforms
  • Decreased alcohol consumption (lost tax revenue)
  • Perestroika: Economy
    • Decentralize planning, end price controls
  • Glasnost: Politics
    • Open to criticism, dissidents rehabilitated
  • Demokratiztsiya
gorbachev s foreign policy
Gorbachev’s Foreign Policy
  • Satellites expensive!
    • Renounce Brezhnev Doctrine
  • Withdraw from Afghanistan
    • Too costly, no clear objective
  • Meet with Reagan
    • Ease strain of confrontation
  • INF and START treaties
    • Reduce stockpiles and cost of maintaining arsenal
consequences in eastern europe
Consequences in Eastern Europe
  • Satellites facing same problems
  • Dissent, economic instability, shortage of consumer goods
  • Local party officials (apparatchiks) concerned with Gorbachev’s reforms
  • Fear losing control
  • Nationalist movements gain momentum
poland solidarity
Poland - Solidarity
  • Origins 1970 strike in Gdansk shipyard
  • Lech Walesa and others strike for better conditions
  • “consumer socialism”
  • Rent controls, food prices controlled
  • Riot in 1976 to protest food prices
  • Leads to dissent movement and underground newspaper “Robotnik”
poland cont
Poland cont…
  • Pope John Paul II visits 1980, encourages dissent on religious grounds
  • National debt rising, food prices again
  • 21 demands, including legalize unions, pay and working conditions, religion
  • Allowed to exist for 469 days
  • Leader imprisoned, martial law
poland cont1
Poland Cont…
  • Created atmosphere of pluralism
  • Moral revolution
  • Peaceful focus, anti-political
  • 1981 October Program challenged Communist Party
  • Martial Law imposed, Walesa imprisoned
poland cont2
Poland Cont…
  • Jaruzelski (Polish leader) imposes control
  • Allows media and religious freedom as long as distanced from Solidarity
  • Weakness of economy difficult to address
    • “Fondest dream is of a roll of toilet paper”
  • Solidarity legalized and invited to government meetings in Feb 1989
  • Sweep elections
east germany berlin wall
East Germany – Berlin Wall
  • GDR loyal hardliners, Stasi feared
  • “Ostpolitik” built a bridge between east and west
  • Open borders in Hungary and Czechoslovakia lead to alarming exodus to west
  • Dissent and protests abound
  • Travel laws relaxed, wall opens Nov 9, 1989
czechoslovakia velvet revolution
Czechoslovakia – Velvet Revolution
  • Resisted de-Stalinization
  • Economic decline in 1950s lead to reforms
  • Dubcek as leader: “Socialism with a human face”
    • Open debate, relax censorship and travel rules, greater autonomy for Slovakia
  • Reforms concern hardliners
  • Students get involved, start non-communist parties
  • Leader Vaclav Havel, writer and dissident
  • Genuine democracy seems attainable
  • Neighboring regimes get concerned by reforms
  • Hardliners appeal to Moscow
prague spring 1968
Prague Spring 1968
  • Warsaw Pact forces invade in August
  • First exercise of “Brezhnev Doctrine”
  • Likened to Nazi invasion in 1939
  • Disillusioning to students and leaders
  • Confusion as to who was ‘helping’ who
  • Dubcek forced to capitulate at gunpoint in Moscow
  • Gustav Husak hardliner
  • Purge party of reformers, censorship restored, etc
  • Roll-back of reforms
  • State provided basic standard of living, better than most Soviet bloc states
  • Charter 77 issued as opposition, gained global publicity
czechoslovakia 1981 1989
Czechoslovakia 1981-1989
  • Perestroika and Glasnost exciting ideas in Prague
  • Even more exciting: rejection of Brezhnev Doctrine
  • Dissidents cautious…
  • Economic decline leads to greater dissent
  • Opportunities for young limited
velvet revolution 1989
Velvet Revolution 1989
  • Opposition coming from environmental groups, political groups, rock and roll, etc
  • Religious freedom demands growing (like Poland)
  • May: borders open, June: Solidarity wins, Nov. 9: Berlin Wall down
  • Nov 17 commemoration turns into anti-government riot
velvet revolution cont
Velvet Revolution cont…
  • Riot dealt with violently, leading to more protest and outrage
  • Civic Forum created by Havel to articulate demands
  • Communist party can’t hold on – no new ideas
  • Police and military can’t be relied on to crackdown
  • President resigns, Dubcek and Havel appear triumphant
  • Havel new president by the end of 1989
issues for post soviet control
Issues for post-Soviet control
  • Lack of democratic traditions
    • United by opposition, now what do we want?
  • Remnants of old regime
    • Old party admins needed to create structure
  • Economic disasters
    • Harsh realities of global markets and capitalism
  • Socio-cultural
    • Economic crisis, fear and nationalism