Toys/Clothing Merchandise Globalization of Japanese Pop Culture
Japanese products that are globally available and massively consumed: • Toys and Such • Ukiyo-e • Sanrio • Video Games • Other electronics Fashion Trends • Kimono • Kanji Shirts • Japanese Tattoos • Harajuku Girls • Shibuya Girls • Superflat Accessories
Fashion Trends: Harajuku Girls – Western Commercialization “Where the catwalk got its claws, all you fashion know-it-alls / With your underground malls in the world of Harajuku / Putting on a show, when you dress up in your clothes / Wild hair color and cell phones / Your accessories are dead on” “Did you see your inspiration in my latest collection?Just wait 'til you get your little hands on L.A.M.B.”
Ukiyo-e • "pictures of the floating world" (浮世絵) • motifs of landscapes, the theatre and pleasure quarters • an ironic allusion to the homophone term "Sorrowful World" (憂き世) • mass-produced
Video Games • Large and growing industry in both Japan and the U.S. • Proportionally larger console games market (relative to computer games) in Japan than in the U.S. • 2 of the top 3 video game corporations are from Japan • Japan has the second largest market for computer and video games (after the U.S.) • Nintendo, Sony, and Microsoft
Video Games: “Wii would like to play” • One of the most powerful video game companies in the industry • Products: Wii, DS, GameBoy, GameCube, Donkey Kong, Super Mario Bros., Legend of Zelda • Both the oldest intact company in the video game console market and one of the largest and most well-known console manufacturers • Currently ahead of Microsoft and Sony in the market due to its creation of the revolutionary Wii
Video Games: “like.no.other” • one of the leading manufacturers of electronics, video, communications, video games, and information technology products for the consumer and professional markets • 5 operating segments — electronics, games, entertainment (motion pictures and music), financial services and other • As a semiconductor maker, Sony is among the Worldwide Top 20 Semiconductor Sales Leaders
Video Game Markets 1) US 2) JAPAN 3) United Kingdom
What’s happening • Increased M&A activity among top developers: • Square Enix • Restructuring of Sega • Nintendo + Bandai • Focus on International Markets through Exports due to heavy product availability domestically.
Shipments • Thanks to increased shipments to international markets, total shipments by manufacturers have been increasing since 1999 in spite of the slowdown in the Japanese market.
Domestic Video Game Market • Sales of home video games (based on current retail prices) in Japan fell 18.4% to ¥501 billion in 2002
Things I Love About Japan • I have never understood the fascination that so many Americans have with Japan, but when I see something like this I have to admit, they have some unbelievable shit over there. On the left is an arcade game called Boong Ga Boong Ga in which you, the player, try to cram a plastic finger up a virtual woman's ass. The harder you shove, the more reaction you get from the computerized face on the screen. I really have nothing to add to this. • And on the right, we have mascots for the game - one with a giant hand for a head and one who appears to be dressed with a fecal motif. Amazing stuff. I want this game.
Household Japanese names in the US Sonic the Hedgehog Ryu Super Mario Dance Dance Revolution Pac Man Raiden
Globalization and Japan The movement of ideas, goods, services, people and information across international boundaries with increasing velocity.
Film in Japan • 2006 - first time in 21 years that Japanese film took the majority share in the box office • Japanese film grossed $890.5 million (53.2%) • -Foreign film grossed $783.6 million (>18. 5%) • 417 out of 821 film releases were Japanese
Film in Japan • Hollywood still continues to top the Japanese box office • Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man’s Chest ($82.8 million)
Top Foreign Films Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (11/05) ($91 million) Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man’s Chest ($82.8 million) The Da Vinci Code ($74.7 million) The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe ($56.7 million) Mission: Impossible III ($42.6 million) Top Domestic Films Tales From Earthsea ($63.2 million) Umizaru 2: Test of Trust ($56.7 million) Suite Dreams ($50.2 million The Sinking of Japan ($44.1 million) Death Note: The Last Name ($43 million) Film in Japan
Film in Japan • Domestic Films • top 10 produced by TV networks • many were inspired by TV dramas
Japanese Film in America • Horror/Thriller Remakes • Ringu 1998 – (The Ring 2002) • Kairo 2001 -- (Pulse 2005) • Dark Water 2002 -- (2005) • Ju-on (The Grudge)
Japanese Film in America • Samurai Films • Yojimbo and Clint Eastwood • The Hidden Fortress and Star Wars (fashion also) • The Seven Samurai and The Magnificent Seven • Zatoichi and Blind Fury • Red Sun • Ronin • The Last Samurai
Japanese Television Outside of Japan • Availability • Online viewing • Youtube.com • Watchanimeonline.com • Bittorent sites • Blogs
Japanese Television Outside of Japan • NHK WORLD • Aims to promote “international understanding” by “offering objective descriptions of contemporary conditions and viewpoints in Japan and the rest of Asia”
Japanese Television Outside of Japan • NTV - Nippon Television Network • Over 150,000 titles • Genres include Dramas, Animations, Feature Films and Documentaries
Japanese Television Outside of Japan • NTV • Global network spanning Asia, Europe, Middle East and America
Japanese Television Outside of Japan • TBS - Tokyo Broadcasting System • Also has a broad global network
Foreign Television in Japan • Recent increase in popularity • 24 • Prison Break • Lost
Foreign Television in Japan • AXN • Run by Sony • Broadcasts foreign TV series and movies in Japan • CSI • Lost • Alias • Bilingual Programming (Japanese/English)
References • http://www.tbs.co.jp/eng/index.html • http://www.nhk.or.jp/nhkworld/english/aboutnw_e.html • http://www.nhk.or.jp/nhkworld/english/aboutnw_e.html • http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117958347.html?categoryid=13&cs=1 • http://axn.co.jp/information/english.html • http://www.ntv.co.jp/english/ • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinema_of_Japan • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samurai_cinema
Food Trends The Globalization of Japanese Cuisine
Sushi Raw Fish’s Story of Global Acceptance • Japanese cuisine was seen as the next ‘hot’ ethnic food by food conglomerates in the late 1980’s • Sushi was often viewed as an ‘authentic’ food representation of Japan • Sushi was not globally popular until the mid-1990’s • Over time sushi has changed in methods of preparation and who is qualified to prepare it
How Sushi Became Mainstream • Sushi was originally popular among the American business elite who flew across the globe for international business trips during the 60’s & 70’s • By the late 80’s sushi eventually grew popular among European and Japanese business elite as the cuisine of ‘health, innovation, and convenience’
Cross Over • However cross over to a global market was not easy • Up until the 60’s & 70’s, the American embassy and various European governments warned that when going abroad to Japan, to only eat tempura (lightly fried seafood) or teriyaki, but to avoid raw foods like sushi for fear of the ‘stomach churning’ it would cause
The Emergence of the ‘California Roll’ • The appearance of the California roll can not be understated, it allowed those who could not (vegetarian) or did not want to eat raw fish, another option • Internationally known chef Nobuyuki Matsuhisa was one of the first known Japanese chefs to compromise on the issue of using raw fish in sushi • One of his techniques: dousing paper-thin fish in hot oil, in effect ‘flash-cooking’ it and maintaining the integrity of a minimally processed dish