The Rise of Fascism • Fascism-political movement • Loyalty to the State and Dictator (Nationalists) • One Party Rule • Militant • Authoritarian Rule • Wore certain clothing/symbols • Italy-Benito Mussolini established the Fascist Party • Charismatic leader who made promises • Marched on Rome in 1922 and was made dictator legally • Used censorship and secret police • Black Shirts-troopers • Controlled everything
The Rise of Nazism in Germany • National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) • Nazism-German form of Fascism (more racist) • Adolf Hitler-took control of the Nazi Party (became der Fuhrer) • Good Speaker • Good Organizer • Imprisoned in 1923 and wrote Mein Kampf(My Struggle) • Set Forth his Goals for Germany • German “Aryan Race” • Promised to regain lands
Adolf Hitler Takes Over Germany • Once out of prison, Hitler was elected Chancellor of Germany in 1933. • Turned Germany into a Totalitarian State and became the dictator of what he called The Third Reich. • Storm Troopers (Brown Shirts) • The SS (Hitler Protection Squad-Black Shirts) • Gestapo (Secret Police) • Propaganda, Censorship, Schools • Economy • Anti-Semitism-hatred of Jews • Swastika
Japan Establishes a Pacific Empire • Weak democracy during the Depression • Japan was taken over by military leaders in the 1930s. • Nationalists • Kept Emperor Hirohito as the head of state • Militarists planned to expand and create an empire • Use others’ resources, materials, and land. • Seized Manchuria in 1931 (against the League of Nations) • 1937-took northern China including the capital, Nanjing. • By 1940, most of Asia had been conquered by Japan.
The Axis Powers Expand • Axis Powers: Germ, Italy, Japan. • Germany: The Rhineland (1936), Austria and the Sudetenland (1938), Czechoslovakia (1939) • Third Reich-new German Empire • Non-Aggression Pact: Germanyw/ the Soviet Union & split Poland (1939) • Munich Conference (1938): Britain and France used Appeasement to avoid war. • Italy: Ethiopia (1935), Albania (1939) • Japan: Manchuria (1931), China (1937)
WWII Begins • September 1, 1939-Nazi Germany invaded Poland • Blitzkrieg(“Lightning War”)-military tactic that uses planes and tanks to quickly conquer. • Britain and France declared war • By June 1940, Germany had conquered France • The Battle of Britain (1940-1941)-the Nazi Air Force (The Luftwaffe) bombed London • Winston Churchill-British Prime Minister refused to surrender to Germany.
The United States Enters After Pearl Harbor • By 1941, Japan’s Empire started to reach into European colonies in Southeast Asia • The U.S. cut off oil supply to Japan and sent aid to Asia • Isoroku Yamamoto-Japan’s greatest naval commander called for an attack on Hawaii • Hawaii was a crucial base • December 7, 1941-Japanese airplanes attacked Pearl Harbor • Sunk 19 ships • More than 2,300 killed • Over 1,100 wounded • U.S. Declared War
The Pacific Theater • After Pearl Harbor, the U.S. launched attacks in the Pacific. • Battle of Midway (1942)-Naval battle that turned the tide of the war in the Pacific for the Allies. • Island Hopping-U.S. military strategy in the Pacific led by General Douglas MacArthur. • Famous Island Battles: • Guadalcanal (1942-43) • Iwo Jima (1945)
WWII Fought on Multiple Fronts • European Theatre: • Western Front: France, Great Britain, Belgium, Germany (Allies v. Germany & Italy) • Eastern Front: Hitler invaded the Soviet Union in 1941 (Germ v. Soviets) • North Africa: Mussolini and Hitler invaded in 1940 for control of the Suez Canal and oil fields (Allies v. Germany & Italy) • Pacific Theatre: Japan v. Allies for control of Asia.
The North Africa Campaign • Battle of El-Alamein (1942)-Primarily a tank battle fought in Egypt btw. Britain and Germany ending in an Allied victory (turning point in North Africa) • Erwin Rommel- “The Desert Fox;” commander of the Nazi forces in North Africa. • The British pushed the Germans back in Egypt • The U.S. helped by launching an invasion into Morocco in November 1942 (Operation Torch). • By 1943, the Nazis had retreated into Italy.
The European Theater • The Soviet Union was invaded by the Nazis in 1941. • Battle of Stalingrad (1942-1943)-Soviet forces turned the Nazis back with the help of winter. (Turning Pt. in the East) • D-Day (June 6, 1944)-Allied invasion into Normandy, France (largest land/sea attack in history)-created a two front war(Turning Pt. in the West) • Allies led by American General Dwight D. Eisenhower • Battle of the Bulge (1944-1945)-last effort from the Nazis to win the war, but they were pushed back by the Allies led by General George Patton.
The End of the WWII • 1945-The Nazis were surrounded by the Allies after the Battle of the Bulge • Italy was taken and Mussolini killed (April 27, 1945) • Hitler committed suicide (April 30, 1945). • V-E Day-May 9, 1945-Germany surrendered • Nuremberg Trials (1945-1946)-Nazis punished for Holocaust • The Manhattan Project-created two atomic bombs that were dropped on Japan: • Hiroshima (August 6th) • Nagasaki (August 9th) • This ended WWII
WWII Aftermath • Yalta Conference (Feb. 1945): • Churchill, Roosevelt, & Stalin met • Decided to divide Germany into four occupied zones • Stalin promised free elections in Eastern Europe • Potsdam Conference (July 1945): • Churchill, Truman, and Stalin met • Re-affirmed the division of Germany and Berlin into 4 occupied zones by the Allies • Issued Japan an ultimatum • United Nations-International Peace Organization (June 1945)
The Holocaust • Hitler claimed that the Aryan race was the “master race.” • Jews were seen as inferior • Nuremberg Laws-deprived Jews of certain rights like citizenship • After Kristallnacht, Jews were rounded up around Europe by the SS. • Placed in ghettos, concentration camps, or death camps • 1941-His plan was called the “Final Solution.” • Exterminate the entire Jewish race (genocide) • Heinrich Himmler was the chief architect • Worked to death, starved, murdered • Six million Jews were killed • Israel was established afterwards as a homeland for Jews.