1965 – 1968. Review Stuff. Pleiku Ia Drang. Part I. Escalation. Prolonged Guerrilla Warfare. After Ia Drang, Vietminh/Vietcong decided to stretch the war out No conventional battles Hit and run guerrilla tactics They only need to not lose, right? U.S. will eventually tire of the fight.
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-Mere Gook Rule …brutality is OK
“Eight Six Foxtrot- Eight Six Foxtrot.
This is One One Zulu. Over.
The woman in blueCarried the weight swiftly, with grace,
Her face hidden by her Conical rice straw hat
One One Zulu- this is Eight Six Foxtrot. Go.
Roger Eight Six. I have Fire Mission.
Dink in the open, Grid: Bravo Sierra
Five Six Niner, Four Six Five, Range:
Three thousand, Proximity; Eight hundred, Over.
The two heavy baskets
balanced on tips
of the springing Chogi stick
Glided close to the hard smooth path
Read back, One One Zulu.
Roger Copy, Eight Six.
Shot on the way, wait.
Shot out, Eight Six.
A sighing 105 mm round slides through its parabola. Then the explosive tearing at the steel which surrounds it, And the shrapnel catches the gliding baskets, And they crumple with the woman in blue “
Hmmm… No VC here either…
Part I Escalation
Prolonged Guerrilla Warfare
After Ia Drang, Vietminh/Vietcong decided to _________________________________
__________________ guerrilla tactics
They only need to ______________, right?
U.S. will eventually __________________
LBJ Felt Forced to Fight a Limited War
goal prop up South Vietnam, not__________ ____________________________________
U.S. public won’t____________________
_____________________________ might not stand for an invasion of the north
Vietnam War sold as a defensive war we are __________________________
Thus, no ___________________ North Vietnam
No bombing of ___________________________
We might hit ___________________ ships
Part II. U.S. Strategy
War of Attrition
This strategy says that the U.S. will win when we have ____________________________________________ that they are unable to field a fighting force
Why was this the necessary strategy?
Seizing land is irrelevant; the guerrilla ‘fish’ simply_________________________________ _________return when the U.S. troops are gone
Crossover Point? - ____________________ ________ _____________________________________________
To Accomplish Attrition, the U.S. used a 3-Pronged Strategy
Search and Destroy Missions-
Destroy Vietcong friendly villages-
“ dry the sea _____________________”…
free fire zones... _________________ ________________________________
Bombing campaign- destroy North Vietnam’s ability to wage war…
a major target here was the_____________ __________________________________.
Quote: “We’ll bomb them back _______ _________________________.” (U.S. general). Problem? __________________
Later estimated that it cost _____ to destroy every _______ of NVA or VC materiel
How to measure success in a War of Attrition?
Robert McNamara Personified the War
Secretary of Defense under ______________
He had been the president of the Ford motor company and had been a huge success because of his reliance on ____________________________ _________________________________________
Body counts, war of attrition, etc. It is running the war ________________________________
Part III. Down Sides of the U.S. Strategy
War of Attrition Conflicts with Fight for Hearts and Minds
What does this phrase ‘Hearts and Minds’ mean? _____________________________ ___________________________________
Use defoliants like ________________Hansen Name ___________________Vietnam 1965-1968 Note-taking Guide
Mere Gook Rule …________________________
Inflated body count (_________________ ) makes it impossible for the U.S. gov to tell__________ ______________________________________
Killing is _______________________
U.S. Morale Begins to Drop
“You don’t fight this enemy rifle to rifle” (translation) ____________________________ _______________________________________
‘search and avoid’ tactic - __________________ _______________________________________
‘fragging’- _____________________________ _______________________________________
Part IV. The U.S. Public is Lied To
The Math Doesn’t Work
One study showed that, if one assumed a kill rate that matched that of _____________________ ____________________________ between 1965 the end of 1968 and assuming that U.S. wasn’t fibbing its #s about body counts, ____________, that it would take _______________to sap the communists’ ability to wage significant resistance
Why a problem?
Despite Evidence to the Contrary, the Administration Gave Rosy Reports
Westmoreland tells congress in 1967- “ We can see the ____________________________________ “
In private, there is a much gloomier outlook…
McNamara later admitted that he knew the war would ________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________
Part V. As the War Stretched On, Problems for the U.S. Grew
The Changing Makeup of the U.S. Forces
In 1965, most of the troops were ______________…
But as the war stretched on and American troop strength grew and volunteers finished their ______ __________________________...
more and more of the men were ________
Why does this matter?
Protest Against the War Grew
LBJ said he was “caught in the middle of the ocean standing on a piece of cardboard” by the ________________
In 1967, LBJ Took the Gloves Off
His real goal/passion was Civil Rights –major _____ _________________________________________…
However, he was unable to fully ____________ _________________________________ : war and civil rights, so he ended up underfunding both
The Phoenix Program
Mainly run by __________ . – carried out _________________________
Eliminate _________________… very bloody, very effective… _____________ _________________________________ (some CIA agents later admitted that many people were killed due to personal vendettas, etc.)