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Art and the Catholic Reformation
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  1. Art and the Catholic Reformation

  2. Elements of the Baroque Movement

  3. Baroque Style • Exaggerated motion • Clear, easily interpreted details • Aimed at the senses and emotions • Used dramatic scenes to emphasize religious events • Attempted to overwhelm the viewer

  4. Council of Trent & Art Teach the faithful • Theology of the Holy Fathers • Mysteries of Redemption • Articles of Faith • Be moved by the Saints • Model their lives after the Saints

  5. Other Objectives • Promote thanksgiving • Remind the worshipper of God’s gifts • Give instruction to the illiterate • Instructions to the Church leadership • Keep the focus on traditional images • Recover souls lost to the Protestant Reformation

  6. Warnings in Trent • Do not suggest that the images contain divinity • Remove any images that promote false teaching • Do not pursue “filthy quest for gain” or promote superstition • Do not create art with “seductive charm”

  7. Do not make the work of the saints look like “boisterous festivities” • Nothing should appear disorderly of arranged in a confusing matter • Nothing profane • No unusual images

  8. Aims (Trent and Beyond) • Combat Reformation and the Scientific Revolution • Reach a large audience • Embody religions experience • Images could have an efficacious impact in devotion • Impress the faithful of the reality of the spiritual experience of the Church • Propaganda

  9. Other Guidelines For Church Art • Be clear, simple and intelligible • Contain a realistic interpretation • Be an emotional stimulant to the faithful masses • Support of transcend the spoken word • Emphasis on the mystical • A tool for instructing the illiterate

  10. Important Themes • Depiction of correct doctrine • Magnificence of Church • Emphasis on passion and devotion • The reality of the spiritual experience • Visions and mystical experiences • Conversion • Martyrdom and Death

  11. Reach A Large Audience San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane - Borromini Worship of the Holy Name of Jesus - Pozzo Baldachin over the High Altar of St. Peter's - Bernini

  12. Be Moved By the Lives of the Saints St. Jerome - Caravaggio St. George and the Dragon - Tintoretto Judith Slaying Holofernes - Gentileschi

  13. Saints - Martyrdom Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew - Ribera Crucifixion of St. Peter -Caravaggio Martyrdom of St. Matthew - Caravaggio

  14. Teach The Faith Calling of St. Matthew - Caravaggio Supper at Emmaus - Caravaggio Doubting Thomas - Caravaggio The Entombment - Caravaggio

  15. Teach the Faith The Nativity - Barocci Assumption of the Virgin - Carracci Dead Christ Mourned- Carracci

  16. Teach the Faith St. Luke Displaying A Painting of the Virgin - Barbieri Triumph of the Barberini - Cortona

  17. Emotional and Religious Experiences The Conversion of St. Paul - Caravaggio Ecstasy of St. Teresa - Bernini Last Supper - Tintoretto

  18. Emotional and Religions Experiences St. Francis in Ecstasy - Caravaggio Finding of St. Mark’s Remains -Tintoretto Mystical Marriage of Saint Catherine - Carracci

  19. Evolution of the Movement • Spreads across Europe – even to Protestant countries • Spread (via the Jesuits) around the globe • Secular subjects • Became a political propaganda tool

  20. To what extent did Baroque Art achieve its purposes?