The Catholic Reformation. Reforms, 1500-1545 Counter-Reformation, 1545-1600. The Counter-Reformation?. External or Internal Pressure? Concern for reformation had been within the church for along time. Most Europeans remained Catholic: Most humanists Most universities Most peasants
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The Catholic Reformation Reforms, 1500-1545 Counter-Reformation, 1545-1600
The Counter-Reformation? • External or Internal Pressure? • Concern for reformation had been within the church for along time. • Most Europeans remained Catholic: • Most humanists • Most universities • Most peasants • All of Mediterranean Europe!
Reforming Individual • Savonarola (1452-98), Florence: railed against the paganism of the humanists, the worldliness of the church, and called for a general council to reform the church. • He lost popular support with a Papal interdict. In 1498 he was tortured, hung and his body burned with his ashes thrown into the river Arno.
Reforming Groups • Oratory of Divine Love, founded in 1497, was inspired by the selfless hospital work of Catherine of Genoa. • The group hoped to reform the church by reforming themselves through prayer, discussion and service. • They advocated an end to simony, pluralism and worldliness in the church. • Members included Cardinal Cajetan (1480-1547), Pope Paul IV (1476-1547) and Cardinal Contarini (1483-1542).
Reforming Pope • Adrian VI (1522-1523) saw the problems in the church as a direct result of the abuses of the church and the immorality of its priests. Moral, devout—a product of the “Brethren of Common Life” (from which John Calvin and Erasmus both emerged).
Pope Clement VII, 1523-1534Regressive Measures • Another De Medici pope • Followed policies of other Renaissance popes • Policies led to sacking of Rome 1527 • Lost half of Europe to Protestants
Ignatius Loyola, 1491-1556 • Founder of Society of Jesus (Jesuits) • Soldier in Spanish army • Wounded at Pavia in 1521 • Cannonball hit his leg • Had to be re-broken and reset later • Part of protruding bone sawed off • Became delirious • Experienced profound religious conversion • Dedicated his life to God
Loyola’s Spiritual Growth • 1523 visited Holy Land • Church would not permit him to teach without learning • Studied at University of Alcala • Also at University of Paris • College of Montague • Same college where Erasmus & Calvin were • There seven years • Gathered 7 companions with him (1534) • Had about 1000 when he died
Loyola as Founder of Jesuits • Middle aged man by time left university • Learned and razor-sharp theologian • Never ceased to be a soldier • Went to Rome and placed himself at the service of Pope Paul III • Paul saw potential for accomplishment • 1538 founded Society of Jesus • Loyola was its first general • Organized as the army of God
Spiritual Exercises • Loyola wrote to train Jesuits • Practical handbook of mystical conversion and spiritual discipline • Influenced by Thomas a Kempis.
Jesuit Commitment • Jesuits took vow of absolute obedience to Pope, and new order was approved by the Pope in 1540. • Took vows of poverty • Absolute military discipline in order • Society grew rapidly • Had great influence
Jesuit Accomplishment • Founded schools & colleges • Served as advisors to Catholic kings • Dominated higher studies in dozen fields • Extended moral discipline to local level • Led Catholics to re-conquest over Protestants • Switzerland, south Germany, Austria, Poland • Their missionaries followed Spanish and Portugese conquerors and traders to Americas and Far East
Reforming Pope: Paul III (1534-1549) Convened a panel of respected experts to evaluate the health of the church. The panel reported many abuses (nepotism, simony, pluralism, absenteeism, mismanagement of wealth and immorality). The panel increased discipline rather than pursuing institutional reform. Appointed the best men as Cardinals, respected for knowledge, and product of Renaissance learning/training.
Cardinal Gasparo Contarini, 1483-1542 • Layman who experienced spiritual conversion • Humanist who sought to reform church from within • Believed in reason and conciliation – • Mild, peaceful approach • Headed papal commission, 1537
Cardinal Gasparo Contarini, 1483-1542 • Drew up list of abuses & needed reforms • Reforms put into effect immediately • Agreed with Luther on justification by faith • Yet reforms failed to address basic spiritual needs
Pope Paul IV, 1555-1559 • Came into ascendancy with death of Contarini in 1542 • Used inquisition • Against Catholics who strayed from fold • Against Protestants in Catholic lands • Used torture, spying, terror • Especially in Spain, Italy, Spanish Netherlands
Pope Paul and His Methods… • Also used The Index • List of forbidden books • Books not approved by him were burned • Some books completely destroyed • He hated Loyola • First true pope of the Counter-Reformation • But nearly destroyed it by his intolerance
The Apex of Reforming Popes • Pope Pius IV (1559-1565) • Pope Pius V (1565-1572)
Council of Trent (1545-1563) • Originally called in 1545, it did not actively pursue agenda till Paul Paul IV (1555-59) led it (only 31 representatives showed up for the first session). • Called for two purposes: • Church Reformation – an institutional reorganization, change in church practices and moral reformation. • Response to Protestant threat – clarify church dogma in the light of Protestant attacks on major items in Catholic theology
Council of Trent • Popular demand for reforming council • First summoned by Paul III in 1545 • Met at Trent on border of Germany, Italy, France • Met in 3 sessions • 1545-1547 • 1551-1552 • 1562-1563
Church Reformations • It instituted reforms in the Papal curia, primarily financial. • It condemned pluralism and simony. • It affirmed the efficacy of indulgences but formulated strict guidelines in order to identify abuses. • Regulated responsibilities of local priests and regional bishops. • Founded seminaries with uniform curriculum for the training of priests.
Accomplishments of Council of Trent • Summarized Counter-Reformation • Rejected Protestantism • Although much debate by delegates who wanted to accept Protestants and their teaching • Rejected any compromise with Protestants • Declared those who affirmed Protestant doctrines anathema
Trent… • Reaffirmed traditional Catholicism • Tradition equal authority with Scripture (inclusion of the Apocrypha) with Latin Vulgate the official translation. • Recognized popes & councils as final judges & interpreters of Bible & religious doctrine • Proscribed a list of banned books: “Index of Forbidden Books” (which was not abolished till 1966). • Upheld traditional Catholic beliefs • Purgatory • Indulgences • Prayer to saints • Seven sacraments • Mass as True Sacrifice • Works necessary for salvation
Trent… • Raised morale of Catholics • Made the liturgy uniform throughout the church • Set up educational system for clergy • Meant much better preparation for them • Established concordats with Catholic kings • Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Austria • Papal control sacrificed to some degree • For pledge by king to support Catholicism in his lands • Thus a Protestant attack on the Catholic Church was an attack on the state
Net Effect of Trent • It reformed some of the practices of the medieval Catholic Church and encouraged educational advances among clergy. The goal was to make traditional religion more effective and attractive to the laity. • It also encouraged uniformity, obedience to the church and anti-Protestantism. It instituted strictures that would prevent another theological revolution such as Protestantism. • Marked the end of the one, universal Catholic church and signaled the emergence of Roman Catholicism as one among other “denominations” of the Christian faith. Now Europe was permanently divided between Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic and various Protestant churches.
Religious Wars in Europe1530-1648 • Holy Roman Empire Wars Against Protestant Princes • Protestant-Catholic Wars in France. • Dutch-Spanish Wars in the Netherlands • Thirty Years War in Central Europe
Holy Roman Empire and the Protestant Princes • Between 1519 and 1530, Emperor Charles V could not effectively deal with Lutheranism because: • The Turks were progressively advancing in the Balkans and were at the gates of Vienna in 1529. • Charles was securing his claims in Italy as he battled the King of France and the Pope in successive wars (1521-25 and 1527-1529). • Three Imperial Diets at Nurenburg from 1522-24 postponed the religious issues. • Diet of Speyer (1526)—Emperor decides to enforce the Edict of Worms. • He was opposed by some princes, and the question was deferred to a Church Council. • It passed a “recess act” which declared that each state should conduct its own religious affairs.
Diet of Speyer (1529) • The Recess is repealed by Charles. • Six Lutheran estates (including Saxony, Brandenberg and Hesse) and 14 free cities protest (and thus, “Protestants”). • The Lutheran Princes seek support from • Francis I, King of France • Henry VIII, King of England • Swiss Cantons
Diet of Augsburg (1530) • Charles ready to resolve the religious question since his Empire is secure. • He receives various Protestant confessions: • Melancthon, “Augsburg Confession” (Lutheran) • Zwingli, “Fidei Ratio” (Zurich) • Bucer, “Tetrapolitana” (Strasbourg) • Eck, “Confrontatio” (Catholic Confession) • Outcome: • Charles demands that all return to the Catholic Faith by Easter, 1531 (he had just been crowned “Holy Roman Emperor” by the Pope in Bologna, Italy earlier in 1530). • Protestant Princes form the Schmalkaldic League in February 1531. • Luther wrote a Confession for the League: “Schmalkadic Articles” (1537).
Schmalkaldic Articles The first and chief article is this: Jesus Christ, our God and Lord, died for our sins and was raised again for our justification (Romans 3:24-25). He alone is the Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world (John 1:29), and God has laid on Him the iniquity of us all (Isaiah 53:6). All have sinned and are justified freely, without their own works and merits, by His grace, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, in His blood (Romans 3:23-25). This is necessary to believe. This cannot be otherwise acquired or grasped by any work, law, or merit. Therefore, it is clear and certain that this faith alone justifies us...Nothing of this article can be yielded or surrendered, even though heaven and earth and everything else falls (Mark 13:31)
War Delayed • Charles did not enforce the Edict because: • Needed funds from Princes to support a renewed war with the Turks • Pope Clement VII had signed a treaty with Francis I and the third Hapsburg-Valois War began (1535-1538) • When Charles was ready to act again in 1541, the last Hapsburg-Valois War erupted (1542-1544). • When Luther died in 1546, the league had internal problems.
Schmalkaldic Wars (1546-1555) • Charles defeated the Schmalkadic League from 1546-1548. • He instituted the Augsburg Interim (1548)—reinstated Roman Catholic Faith by Imperial order. • But Charles again ran into problems with the Turks (overrunning Hungary) and France (“War of Liberation” in 1552). • Peace was achieved between Charles and the Protestant Princes in 1555—The Peace of Augsburg with the key principle of cuius regio, eius religio.
French Gallicanism • France had always been rather independent in relation to the Roman Catholic Church: • The Bablyonian Captivity in Avignon • Counciliarism began at the University of Paris • Humanism was strong in southern France • But France was the most centralized monarchy in Europe.
Queen Catherine de Medici King Charles IX (1560-1574)
Reformed Church in France • Geneva was French-speaking and trained ministers who were sent into France. • France persecuted these ministers • Francis I began the persecution of Protestants in 1532. • Henry II (1547-1559) instituted an inquisition called “the burning chamber” in 1555. • No leniency; books from Geneva burned • French Reformed Church meets in its first National Synod in 1559. • Adopted the “Gallic Confession of Faith” (authored by Calvin) • By 1562 represented 2,000 congregations of 3,000,000 adherents out of a population in France of 20,000,000. • It almost functioned as a state within a state.
Growth of Political Power • Protestants were called Huguenots (uncertain origin). • Between 1562-1598, Protestants and Catholics were fight eight major religious civil wars. • There were three additional wars in the 1620s. • By 1550 Huguenots were a political power in southern France, particularly among nobles resentful of the growing power of the monarchy and the rising middle class. • During the short reign of Francis II (1559-1560)—17 year old son of Henry II, the Protestants became a political party.
The Reign of Charles IX 1560-1574 • Came to the throne at the age of 10 and was thus dominated by his mother Catherine d’Medici. • Due to youth, regional nobles gained power. • Guise family (Catholic)—conducted violent oppression of Protestants • Bourbon family (Protestant)—led by Henry of Navarre and Gaspard de Coligny • France went through a series of religious civil wars in the 1560s, but the Protestants gained a favorable peace in 1570. • Coligny had become good friends with King Charles.
Huguenot-Catholic Wars in France • In August 1572, it was believed a major political healing was about to take place: the marriage of the Protestant Henry to the Catholic Margaret of Valois. • However, on August 24, 1572, Huguenot leaders (including Coligny) were murdered in their beds, and this encouraged angry mobs throughout France to assault Protestants (“St. Bartholomew Day Massacre”). • 6,000 Protestants died in Paris • 70,000 Protestants died in the Provinces • But Protestants were still able to secure favorable terms to the end of hostilities.
The War of the Three Henries (1585-1590) • Three Henries: • Henry III, King of France and last surviving Valois heir of Francis I. • Henry, duke of Guise, head of the Catholic League • Henry of Navarre, Bourbon family and heir-presumptive of the childless Henry III (cousin of Henry III) and married to Henry III’s sister (Margaret). • The War • Henry III fled Paris as Henry of Guise was popularly acclaimed King. Henry of Guise was assassinated. • The Catholic League revolted and Henry III was assassinated. The Catholic league proclaimed an uncle of Henry of Navarre as King Charles X. • Henry of Navarre defeated the Catholic League in 1590, but Spanish troops prevented his entry into Paris.
Henry IV (1589-1610) • Protestant Henry becomes Catholic: “Paris is well worth a mass”. • In order to appeal to moderate French Catholics and to prevent the King of Spain from installing his granddaughter as queen, Henry becomes Catholic. • He is crowned in 1593, Pope accepts his conversion in 1595 and wins a treaty with Spain in 1598. • In 1598 he proclaims the “Edict of Nantes” which grants religious toleration for Protestants in certain towns. • Public worship still forbidden in episcopal centers. • In 200 towns where they could worship, they were also free to garrison and fortify their town. • Protestants were granted civil liberties and the protection of the law. • Henry IV, however, was assassinated in 1610; some think by a Jesuit plot.
King Henry IV Margaret of Valois