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The Catholic Reformation. Reforms, 1500-1545 Counter-Reformation, 1545-1600. The Counter-Reformation?. External or Internal Pressure? Concern for reformation had been within the church for along time. Most Europeans remained Catholic: Most humanists Most universities Most peasants

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the catholic reformation

The Catholic Reformation

Reforms, 1500-1545

Counter-Reformation, 1545-1600

the counter reformation
The Counter-Reformation?
  • External or Internal Pressure?
  • Concern for reformation had been within the church for along time.
  • Most Europeans remained Catholic:
    • Most humanists
    • Most universities
    • Most peasants
    • All of Mediterranean Europe!
reforming individual
Reforming Individual
  • Savonarola (1452-98), Florence: railed against the paganism of the humanists, the worldliness of the church, and called for a general council to reform the church.
  • He lost popular support with a Papal interdict. In 1498 he was tortured, hung and his body burned with his ashes thrown into the river Arno.
reforming groups
Reforming Groups
  • Oratory of Divine Love, founded in 1497, was inspired by the selfless hospital work of Catherine of Genoa.
  • The group hoped to reform the church by reforming themselves through prayer, discussion and service.
  • They advocated an end to simony, pluralism and worldliness in the church.
  • Members included Cardinal Cajetan (1480-1547), Pope Paul IV (1476-1547) and Cardinal Contarini (1483-1542).
reforming pope
Reforming Pope
  • Adrian VI (1522-1523) saw the problems in

the church as a direct result of the abuses of

the church and the immorality of its priests.

Moral, devout—a product of the “Brethren of

Common Life” (from which John Calvin and Erasmus both emerged).

pope clement vii 1523 1534 regressive measures
Pope Clement VII, 1523-1534Regressive Measures
  • Another De Medici pope
  • Followed policies of other Renaissance popes
  • Policies led to sacking of Rome 1527
  • Lost half of Europe to Protestants
ignatius loyola 1491 1556
Ignatius Loyola, 1491-1556
  • Founder of Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
  • Soldier in Spanish army
  • Wounded at Pavia in 1521
  • Cannonball hit his leg
  • Had to be re-broken and reset later
  • Part of protruding bone sawed off
  • Became delirious
  • Experienced profound religious conversion
  • Dedicated his life to God
loyola s spiritual growth
Loyola’s Spiritual Growth
  • 1523 visited Holy Land
  • Church would not permit him to teach without learning
  • Studied at University of Alcala
  • Also at University of Paris
    • College of Montague
    • Same college where Erasmus & Calvin were
    • There seven years
    • Gathered 7 companions with him (1534)
    • Had about 1000 when he died
loyola as founder of jesuits
Loyola as Founder of Jesuits
  • Middle aged man by time left university
  • Learned and razor-sharp theologian
  • Never ceased to be a soldier
  • Went to Rome and placed himself at the service of Pope Paul III
    • Paul saw potential for accomplishment
  • 1538 founded Society of Jesus
    • Loyola was its first general
    • Organized as the army of God
spiritual exercises
Spiritual Exercises
  • Loyola wrote to train Jesuits
  • Practical handbook of mystical conversion and spiritual discipline
  • Influenced by Thomas a Kempis.
jesuit commitment
Jesuit Commitment
  • Jesuits took vow of absolute obedience to Pope, and new order was approved by the Pope in 1540.
  • Took vows of poverty
  • Absolute military discipline in order
  • Society grew rapidly
  • Had great influence
jesuit accomplishment
Jesuit Accomplishment
  • Founded schools & colleges
  • Served as advisors to Catholic kings
  • Dominated higher studies in dozen fields
  • Extended moral discipline to local level
  • Led Catholics to re-conquest over Protestants
    • Switzerland, south Germany, Austria, Poland
  • Their missionaries followed Spanish and Portugese conquerors and traders to Americas and Far East
reforming pope paul iii 1534 1549
Reforming Pope: Paul III (1534-1549)

Convened a panel of respected experts to evaluate the health of the church. The panel reported many abuses (nepotism, simony, pluralism, absenteeism, mismanagement of wealth and immorality). The panel increased discipline rather than pursuing institutional reform.

Appointed the best men as Cardinals, respected for knowledge, and product of Renaissance learning/training.

cardinal gasparo contarini 1483 1542
Cardinal Gasparo Contarini, 1483-1542
  • Layman who experienced spiritual conversion
  • Humanist who sought to reform church from within
  • Believed in reason and conciliation –
    • Mild, peaceful approach
  • Headed papal commission, 1537
cardinal gasparo contarini 1483 154218
Cardinal Gasparo Contarini, 1483-1542
  • Drew up list of abuses & needed reforms
  • Reforms put into effect immediately
  • Agreed with Luther on justification by faith
  • Yet reforms failed to address basic spiritual needs
pope paul iv 1555 1559
Pope Paul IV, 1555-1559
  • Came into ascendancy with death of Contarini in 1542
  • Used inquisition
    • Against Catholics who strayed from fold
    • Against Protestants in Catholic lands
  • Used torture, spying, terror
    • Especially in Spain, Italy, Spanish Netherlands
pope paul and his methods
Pope Paul and His Methods…
  • Also used The Index
    • List of forbidden books
    • Books not approved by him were burned
    • Some books completely destroyed
  • He hated Loyola
  • First true pope of the Counter-Reformation
  • But nearly destroyed it by his intolerance
the apex of reforming popes
The Apex of Reforming Popes
  • Pope Pius IV (1559-1565)
  • Pope Pius V (1565-1572)
council of trent 1545 1563
Council of Trent (1545-1563)
  • Originally called in 1545, it did not actively pursue agenda till Paul Paul IV (1555-59) led it (only 31 representatives showed up for the first session).
  • Called for two purposes:
    • Church Reformation – an institutional reorganization, change in church practices and moral reformation.
    • Response to Protestant threat – clarify church dogma in the light of Protestant attacks on major items in Catholic theology
council of trent
Council of Trent
  • Popular demand for reforming council
  • First summoned by Paul III in 1545
  • Met at Trent on border of Germany, Italy, France
  • Met in 3 sessions
    • 1545-1547
    • 1551-1552
    • 1562-1563
church reformations
Church Reformations
  • It instituted reforms in the Papal curia, primarily financial.
  • It condemned pluralism and simony.
  • It affirmed the efficacy of indulgences but formulated strict guidelines in order to identify abuses.
  • Regulated responsibilities of local priests and regional bishops.
  • Founded seminaries with uniform curriculum for the training of priests.
accomplishments of council of trent
Accomplishments of Council of Trent
  • Summarized Counter-Reformation
  • Rejected Protestantism
    • Although much debate by delegates who wanted to accept Protestants and their teaching
  • Rejected any compromise with Protestants
  • Declared those who affirmed Protestant doctrines anathema
  • Reaffirmed traditional Catholicism
  • Tradition equal authority with Scripture (inclusion of the Apocrypha) with Latin Vulgate the official translation.
  • Recognized popes & councils as final judges & interpreters of Bible & religious doctrine
  • Proscribed a list of banned books: “Index of Forbidden Books” (which was not abolished till 1966).
  • Upheld traditional Catholic beliefs
    • Purgatory
    • Indulgences
    • Prayer to saints
    • Seven sacraments
    • Mass as True Sacrifice
    • Works necessary for salvation
  • Raised morale of Catholics
  • Made the liturgy uniform throughout the church
  • Set up educational system for clergy
    • Meant much better preparation for them
  • Established concordats with Catholic kings
    • Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Austria
    • Papal control sacrificed to some degree
    • For pledge by king to support Catholicism in his lands
    • Thus a Protestant attack on the Catholic Church was an attack on the state
net effect of trent
Net Effect of Trent
  • It reformed some of the practices of the medieval Catholic Church and encouraged educational advances among clergy. The goal was to make traditional religion more effective and attractive to the laity.
  • It also encouraged uniformity, obedience to the church and anti-Protestantism. It instituted strictures that would prevent another theological revolution such as Protestantism.
  • Marked the end of the one, universal Catholic church and signaled the emergence of Roman Catholicism as one among other “denominations” of the Christian faith. Now Europe was permanently divided between Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic and various Protestant churches.
religious wars in europe 1530 1648
Religious Wars in Europe1530-1648
  • Holy Roman Empire Wars Against Protestant Princes
  • Protestant-Catholic Wars in France.
  • Dutch-Spanish Wars in the Netherlands
  • Thirty Years War in Central Europe
holy roman empire and the protestant princes
Holy Roman Empire and the Protestant Princes
  • Between 1519 and 1530, Emperor Charles V could not effectively deal with Lutheranism because:
    • The Turks were progressively advancing in the Balkans and were at the gates of Vienna in 1529.
    • Charles was securing his claims in Italy as he battled the King of France and the Pope in successive wars (1521-25 and 1527-1529).
    • Three Imperial Diets at Nurenburg from 1522-24 postponed the religious issues.
  • Diet of Speyer (1526)—Emperor decides to enforce the Edict of Worms.
    • He was opposed by some princes, and the question was deferred to a Church Council.
    • It passed a “recess act” which declared that each state should conduct its own religious affairs.
diet of speyer 1529
Diet of Speyer (1529)
  • The Recess is repealed by Charles.
  • Six Lutheran estates (including Saxony, Brandenberg and Hesse) and 14 free cities protest (and thus, “Protestants”).
  • The Lutheran Princes seek support from
    • Francis I, King of France
    • Henry VIII, King of England
    • Swiss Cantons
diet of augsburg 1530
Diet of Augsburg (1530)
  • Charles ready to resolve the religious question since his Empire is secure.
  • He receives various Protestant confessions:
    • Melancthon, “Augsburg Confession” (Lutheran)
    • Zwingli, “Fidei Ratio” (Zurich)
    • Bucer, “Tetrapolitana” (Strasbourg)
    • Eck, “Confrontatio” (Catholic Confession)
  • Outcome:
    • Charles demands that all return to the Catholic Faith by Easter, 1531 (he had just been crowned “Holy Roman Emperor” by the Pope in Bologna, Italy earlier in 1530).
    • Protestant Princes form the Schmalkaldic League in February 1531.
      • Luther wrote a Confession for the League: “Schmalkadic Articles” (1537).
schmalkaldic articles
Schmalkaldic Articles

The first and chief article is this: Jesus Christ, our God and Lord, died for our sins and was raised again for our justification (Romans 3:24-25). He alone is the Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world (John 1:29), and God has laid on Him the iniquity of us all (Isaiah 53:6). All have sinned and are justified freely, without their own works and merits, by His grace, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, in His blood (Romans 3:23-25). This is necessary to believe. This cannot be otherwise acquired or grasped by any work, law, or merit. Therefore, it is clear and certain that this faith alone justifies us...Nothing of this article can be yielded or surrendered, even though heaven and earth and everything else falls (Mark 13:31)

war delayed
War Delayed
  • Charles did not enforce the Edict because:
    • Needed funds from Princes to support a renewed war with the Turks
    • Pope Clement VII had signed a treaty with Francis I and the third Hapsburg-Valois War began (1535-1538)
  • When Charles was ready to act again in 1541, the last Hapsburg-Valois War erupted (1542-1544).
  • When Luther died in 1546, the league had internal problems.
schmalkaldic wars 1546 1555
Schmalkaldic Wars (1546-1555)
  • Charles defeated the Schmalkadic League from 1546-1548.
  • He instituted the Augsburg Interim (1548)—reinstated Roman Catholic Faith by Imperial order.
  • But Charles again ran into problems with the Turks (overrunning Hungary) and France (“War of Liberation” in 1552).
  • Peace was achieved between Charles and the Protestant Princes in 1555—The Peace of Augsburg with the key principle of cuius regio, eius religio.
french gallicanism
French Gallicanism
  • France had always been rather independent in relation to the Roman Catholic Church:
    • The Bablyonian Captivity in Avignon
    • Counciliarism began at the University of Paris
    • Humanism was strong in southern France
  • But France was the most centralized monarchy in Europe.

Queen Catherine de Medici King Charles IX (1560-1574)

reformed church in france
Reformed Church in France
  • Geneva was French-speaking and trained ministers who were sent into France.
  • France persecuted these ministers
    • Francis I began the persecution of Protestants in 1532.
    • Henry II (1547-1559) instituted an inquisition called “the burning chamber” in 1555.
      • No leniency; books from Geneva burned
  • French Reformed Church meets in its first National Synod in 1559.
    • Adopted the “Gallic Confession of Faith” (authored by Calvin)
    • By 1562 represented 2,000 congregations of 3,000,000 adherents out of a population in France of 20,000,000.
    • It almost functioned as a state within a state.
growth of political power
Growth of Political Power
  • Protestants were called Huguenots (uncertain origin).
    • Between 1562-1598, Protestants and Catholics were fight eight major religious civil wars.
    • There were three additional wars in the 1620s.
  • By 1550 Huguenots were a political power in southern France, particularly among nobles resentful of the growing power of the monarchy and the rising middle class.
  • During the short reign of Francis II (1559-1560)—17 year old son of Henry II, the Protestants became a political party.
the reign of charles ix 1560 1574
The Reign of Charles IX 1560-1574
  • Came to the throne at the age of 10 and was thus dominated by his mother Catherine d’Medici.
  • Due to youth, regional nobles gained power.
    • Guise family (Catholic)—conducted violent oppression of Protestants
    • Bourbon family (Protestant)—led by Henry of Navarre and Gaspard de Coligny
  • France went through a series of religious civil wars in the 1560s, but the Protestants gained a favorable peace in 1570.
    • Coligny had become good friends with King Charles.
huguenot catholic wars in france
Huguenot-Catholic Wars in France
  • In August 1572, it was believed a major political healing was about to take place: the marriage of the Protestant Henry to the Catholic Margaret of Valois.
  • However, on August 24, 1572, Huguenot leaders (including Coligny) were murdered in their beds, and this encouraged angry mobs throughout France to assault Protestants (“St. Bartholomew Day Massacre”).
    • 6,000 Protestants died in Paris
    • 70,000 Protestants died in the Provinces
  • But Protestants were still able to secure favorable terms to the end of hostilities.
the war of the three henries 1585 1590
The War of the Three Henries (1585-1590)
  • Three Henries:
    • Henry III, King of France and last surviving Valois heir of Francis I.
    • Henry, duke of Guise, head of the Catholic League
    • Henry of Navarre, Bourbon family and heir-presumptive of the childless Henry III (cousin of Henry III) and married to Henry III’s sister (Margaret).
  • The War
    • Henry III fled Paris as Henry of Guise was popularly acclaimed King. Henry of Guise was assassinated.
    • The Catholic League revolted and Henry III was assassinated. The Catholic league proclaimed an uncle of Henry of Navarre as King Charles X.
    • Henry of Navarre defeated the Catholic League in 1590, but Spanish troops prevented his entry into Paris.
henry iv 1589 1610
Henry IV (1589-1610)
  • Protestant Henry becomes Catholic: “Paris is well worth a mass”.
    • In order to appeal to moderate French Catholics and to prevent the King of Spain from installing his granddaughter as queen, Henry becomes Catholic.
    • He is crowned in 1593, Pope accepts his conversion in 1595 and wins a treaty with Spain in 1598.
  • In 1598 he proclaims the “Edict of Nantes” which grants religious toleration for Protestants in certain towns.
    • Public worship still forbidden in episcopal centers.
    • In 200 towns where they could worship, they were also free to garrison and fortify their town.
    • Protestants were granted civil liberties and the protection of the law.
  • Henry IV, however, was assassinated in 1610; some think by a Jesuit plot.

King Henry IV Margaret of Valois

huguenot s expelled
Huguenot’s Expelled
  • Henry IV was assassinated in 1610, and 8 year old Louis XIII (1601-43) became king but his mother Marie de’ Medici was the real power.
  • Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642) ultimately became the power behind the throne of the pro-Catholic royalty. Protestants were disarmed and divested of political power.
  • In 1665 Protestants were to surrender their children to be educated at Catholic schools.
  • Ultimately, Louis XIV in 1685 issued the Edict of Fontainbleu which criminalized Protestantism in France. 50,000 families fled to America, South Africa, Prussia, Netherlands and England.
  • Despite the oppression, a “French Reformed Church” continued to exist in France and re-emerged when Louis XVI issued a decree of religious tolerance in 1787.
the dutch reformation
The Dutch Reformation
  • The low countries were a breeding ground for early humanists (Erasmus) and devotional movements (Devotio Moderna; Thomas a Kempis).
  • The Reformation was at first humanistic, but then Lutheran as Lutherans were martyred in 1520s.
  • The Anabaptists emerged in the 1530s and remained throughout the 16th and 17th century. Emperor Charles instituted the full Spanish Inquisition in the Netherlands in the 1540s.
  • By 1560, the Calvinists had emerged as the leading Protestant party.
    • Belgic Confession was written in 1561; the author was burned at the stake in 1571.
    • Dutch Reformed Church adopted the Heidelberg Catechism as their confessional stance in 1571.
    • Calvinism present in the Netherlands due to the English and French refugees and the support of Heidelberg.
dutch spanish war in netherlands
Dutch-Spanish War in Netherlands
  • Philip II of Spain (1555-98), son of Emperor Charles V, reigned over the Netherlands by virtue of an earlier Hapsburg marriage.
    • Charles V had ruled the low provinces because his grandmother was the Queen of Burgundy
    • When Charles V abdicated in 1555, he secured the Holy Roman Empire for his brother Ferdinand and gave the rule of Spain and low countries to his son Philip.
  • The low countries were divided ethnically, linguistically and religiously
    • Netherland was Germanic, Dutch-speaking and Protestant
    • Belgium was Flemish, French-speaking and Catholic.
  • Philip wanted a fully Catholic state—increased number of bishops, taxed the provinces to finance wars, stepped up persecution of Protestants. Philip was generally disliked as a “outsider” or “foreigner.”
    • Calvinists were iconoclastic, particularly in 1559.
    • Philip sent troops to oppose the Calvinists and suppress them.
militant calvinism
Militant Calvinism
  • The Dutch requested religious tolerance in the northern Provinces where the Calvinists were located, but the Spanish refused and mocked them as “beggars”.
  • Some Calvinists seized control of cities. Philip sends the Duke of Alba to suppress (1567-1568). He executes 18 nobles.
  • In 1572, William of Orange leads a revolt and by 1579 the northern provinces (Netherlands) had formed an alliance. Though nominally a Calvinist, William wants religious toleration and to restore the rights of nobles.
netherlands and belgium
Netherlands and Belgium
  • In 1581 Protestant Holland declared independence and wars ensued till the Spanish retreated in 1609. The truce ended in 1621 and war was renewed till the final peace came in 1648 at the Peace of Westphalia where Spain relinquished all rights to the Northern Provinces (Netherlands).
  • However, the southern region, called Flanders, remained in Spanish Catholic hands. The Jesuits reinvigorated Catholicism in what would later become “Belgium” (which did not become an independent state until 1830).
thirty years war in central europe
Thirty Years’ War in Central Europe
  • In 1590, roughly half of Europe was Protestant, but in 1690 that ratio was reduced to one-fifth.
  • The war started with the “defenestration” of two Catholic magistrates in Prague after the Emperor Mattias (1557-1619) appointed a Catholic King over Bohemia, his cousin Ferdinand (1578-1637).
  • Upon becoming Emperor in 1619, Ferdinand invaded Bohemia and banned Protestantism—all who were unwilling to convert had to leave by Easter 1626.
bohemian war 1618 1625
Bohemian War (1618-1625)
  • Persecution against Protestant Hussites
  • Hapsburgs refused to allow them to elect their own king
  • Government placed under 10 governors, 7 Catholic
  • Group of Protestant noblemen threw Catholic representatives of emperor out of palace window
    • The Defenestration of Prague
progress of the war
Progress of the War
  • Protestants led by Count Thurn and Count Mansfeld
  • Catholics led by Tilly
  • Initial victories for Protestants
  • Protestants decisively defeated at Battle of White Mountain Nov. 8, 1520
  • Emperor Ferdinand II, Jesuits, and inquisition ended Protestantism in Bohemia
the danish war 1625 1629
The Danish War (1625-1629)
  • Protestant leader King Christian IV of Denmark
  • Catholic leader Albert of Wallenstein (1538-1634)
  • Catholic victory at Bridge of Dressau 1626
  • Edict of Restitution, Mar. 29, 1629
  • Treaty of Lubeck restored Christian’s lands but he agreed not in interfere in Germany
  • Wallenstein dismissed in 1630 for being too severe

King Christian IV of Denmark Albert of Wallenstein

thirty years war
Thirty Years’ War
  • England, Netherlands and Denmark then invaded Germany to cripple Ferdinand but were defeated and hostilities ended with a treaty in 1629.
  • Sweden, under Gustavus Adolphus (1594-1632), invaded Germany in 1630 to punish the Catholics and regain central Europe for Protestantism as well as thwart the power of Catholic Hapsburg.
  • The Swedes crushed the Catholic League and occupied Prague. However, Adolphus was killed in 1632 and fortunes were slowly reversed.
  • By 1648 central Europe was exhausted from hostilities. Adolphus’ friend and chancellor remarked: “Behold with what little wisdom the world is ruled.”
the swedish war 1630 1635
The Swedish War (1630-1635)
  • Protestant leader Gustav II Adolphus King of Sweden (1594-1632)
  • Invaded Germany to support Protestants
  • Wanted Prussia and Pomerania for Sweden (control of Baltic Sea)
  • Made treaty with the French
  • Won several victories
  • Tilly captured and sacked Magdeburg 1631
progress of war
Progress of War
  • Gustav Adolphus won great victory at Leipzig of Breitenfeld Sept. 17, 1631
    • Tilly against Gustav
    • 40,000 in each army
  • Wallenstein brought back in; Tilly killed
  • Gustav and Wallenstein fought at Lutzen
    • Nov. 16, 1632
    • Gustav’s army won, but he was killed
  • Wallenstein again fired and later assassinated
  • War settled by Treaty of Prague, May 30, 1635
    • Lutherans alone granted freedom of worship
swedish french war 1635 1648
Swedish-French War (1635-1648)
  • Germans against Swedes
  • Swedes against Danes
  • French against Germans
  • Spanish against French, Dutch, Swedes
  • Initial victories for Protestants
  • Germany devastated
  • Emperor called for truce 1648
devastating effects
Devastating Effects
  • Example: Magdeburg’s 30,000 inhabitants were reduced to 5,000 survivors on May 19, 1631.
  • 3,000,000 Bohemians shrunk to less than 800,000 by the end of the war.
  • Germany’s population decreased from 21 to 13.5 million in the course of the war (a reduction of 35%).
treaties of westphalia 1648
Treaties of Westphalia (1648)
  • Independence for Netherlands & Switzerland
  • Gains for French & Swedes
  • Germany remained fragmented
  • Reformed church recognized under Peace of Augsburg
  • Catholic & Protestant states had equal status in Empire
  • Land ownership set by norm date Jan. 1, 1624
  • No rights for Protestants in Bohemia or Austria
the peace of westphalia 1648
The Peace of Westphalia (1648)
  • Retained the conclusion of the Peace of Augsburg (1555): the religion of the state is determined by the religion of the ruler.
  • Territorial adjustments: Sweden gained in the Baltic, France along the Rhine, German princes gained greater authority at the expense of the Emperor, Hapsburgs gained control of Bohemia, and the Brandeburg-Prussian rulers arose as independent German-speaking princes in north central Europe.
  • War in the future was more about the balance of power and commercial interests than religion.
  • Established the religious contours of Europe for the rest of the millennium.
leipzig debate 1519
Leipzig Debate (1519)
  • After Luther pointed out that the Greek Church had never recognized any papal supremacy, Eck responded that the Greek Church was not only schismatic but, by rejecting the Roman primacy, had made itself heretical; the Greeks had “severed themselves from the Church and from the Christian faith itself.”
  • A year later, Luther “declared that ‘Muscovites, White Russians, Greeks, Bohemians, and many other great lands in the world...believe as we do, baptize as we do, preach as we do, live as we do.’”
  • The opportunity came for Melanchthon to approach the Eastern Church when he received into his home in the summer of 1559 a Serbian deacon from the Patriarchate of Constantinople. This deacon, Demetrios Myros, remained for about six months with Melanchthon in Wittenberg, where he learned first-hand information about the Reformation and the Lutheran Church. He, in turn, was able to acquaint Melanchthon with the piety and ethos of the Orthodox Church.
augustana graeca 1559
Augustana Graeca (1559)
  • When Patriarch Josaph II examined the Lutheran Confession, he immediately recognized that many of its distinctive doctrines were at odds with the Orthodox Church. To avoid the risk of controversy with the German Lutherans, and thereby thwart the Sultan’s political relations with the Protestant States, the Patriarch simply declined to respond -- fairly typical of Byzantine diplomacy.
jeremias and augsburg confession
Jeremias and Augsburg Confession
  • Upon receiving the Greek Confession, the Patriarch requested five more copies and promised to provide a point-by-point response to the document. This whole process took some time, but the first doctrinal response of Jeremias II to the Augustana Graeca was received at Tübingen on 18 June 1576.
german greek discussion
German-Greek Discussion
  • The leading participants in the 16th-century dialogue included Jakob Andreae, the Chancellor of the University of Tübingen in the duchy of Würtemberg, and Patriarch Jeremias II of Constantinople.
Scripture and Tradition

Opposition to filioque

Synergistic Free Will

The Role of Works

7+ Sacraments

Sola Scriptura

Defense of Filioque

Total Depravity

Justification by Faith Alone

2 Sacraments

eastern soteriology
Eastern Soteriology

Orthodoxy sees human nature as fallen and mortal, but as retaining its fundamental orientation toward God and not as inheriting some type of juridical guilt; we are redeemed from this fallen human nature by the incarnation of the Son of God, who assumes and shares this fallen, mortal nature in every aspect except sin, even unto death, restoring it to its former potentiality (i.e., “justifying” us) through his resurrection, in which we share. But restoration to the potentiality of Adam and Eve is just a starting point in Orthodox theology; we are called to communion with God, to grow and mature into the likeness of God, to become “deified” by participation in God’s own life through the Holy Spirit.

augustinian soteriology
Augustinian Soteriology

Augustinianism sees human nature as fallen and mortal, having lost its fundamental orientation toward God and inheriting some type of juridical guilt; we are forgiven of the original guilt of this fallen human nature by baptism through the atonement of Christ. Justification by faith is the juridical gift of divine righteousness—the imputation of Christ’s righteousness. By sanctification humanity is restored to the former status of Adam and Eve in creation as they communed with God. We are restored to the perfection in which God created us as we are fully restored into the image of God through the sanctifying work of the Spirit.