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Chapter 7 Human Geography of Canada: Developing a Vast Wilderness. Three major groups in Canada—the native peoples, the French, and the English—have melded into a diverse and economically strong nation. Section 1: History and Government of Canada.

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Chapter 7 Human Geography of Canada: Developing a Vast Wilderness

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chapter 7 human geography of canada developing a vast wilderness

Chapter 7 Human Geography of Canada: Developing a Vast Wilderness

Three major groups in Canada—the native peoples, the French, and the English—have melded into a diverse and economically strong nation.

section 1 history and government of canada
Section 1: History and Government of Canada
  • French and British settlement greatly influenced Canada’s political development.
  • Canada’s size and climate affected economic growth and population distribution.
the first settlers and colonial rivalry
The First Settlers and Colonial Rivalry

Early Peoples

  • After Ice Age, migrants cross Arctic land bridge from Asia
    • ancestors of Arctic Inuit (Eskimos); North American Indians to south
  • Vikings found Vinland (Newfoundland) about A.D. 1000; later abandon

the first settlers and colonial rivalry1
The First Settlers and Colonial Rivalry

Colonization by France and Britain

  • French explorers claim much of Canada in 1500–1600s as “New France”
  • British settlers colonize the Atlantic Coast
  • Coastal fisheries and inland fur trade important to both countries
  • Britain wins French and Indian War (1754–1763); French settlers stay

steps toward unity
Steps Toward Unity

Establishing the Dominion of Canada

  • In 1791 Britain creates two political units called provinces
    • Upper Canada (later, Ontario): English-speaking, Protestant
    • Lower Canada (Quebec): French-speaking, Roman Catholic
  • Rupert’s Land a northern area owned by fur-trading company
  • Immigrants arrive, cities develop: Quebec City, Montreal, Toronto
    • railways, canals are built as explorers seek better fur-trading areas
establishing the dominion of canada
Establishing the Dominion of Canada
  • Political, ethnic disputes lead to Britain’s 1867 North America Act
    • creates Dominion of Canadaas a loose confederation(political union)
    • Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick
    • self-governed part of British Empire
  • Expansion includes:
    • Rupert’s Land, Manitoba, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island
    • later: Yukon Territory, Alberta, Saskatchewan
    • Newfoundland in 1949
continental expansion and development
Continental Expansion and Development

From the Atlantic to the Pacific

  • In 1885 a transcontinental railroad goes from Montreal to Vancouver
  • European immigrants arrive and Yukon gold brings fortune hunters
    • copper, zinc, silver also found; grow towns, railroads

urban and industrial growth
Urban and Industrial Growth
  • Farming gives way to urban industrialization, manufacturing
    • within 100 miles of U.S. border due to climate, land, transportation
  • Canada becomes major economic power in 20th century

governing canada
Governing Canada

The Parliamentary System

  • In 1931 Canada becomes independent, British monarch is symbolic head
  • Parliamentary government:
    • parliament—legislature combining legislative and executive functions
    • consists of an appointed Senate, elected House of Commons
    • prime minister, head of government, is majority party leader
  • All ten provinces have own legislature and premier (prime minister)
    • federal government administers the territories

Stephen Harper is the current Prime Minister of Canada.

section 2 economy and culture of canada
Section 2: Economy and Culture of Canada
  • Canada is highly industrialized and urbanized, with one of the world’s most developed economies.
  • Canadians are a diverse people.




an increasingly diverse economy
An Increasingly Diverse Economy

The Early Fur Trade

  • Beginning in 1500s Native Americans, now known as the First Nations:
    • begin trade with European fishermen along Atlantic coast
  • French and English trappers and traders expand westward
  • Voyageurs—French-Canadian boatmen transport pelts to trading posts

canada s primary industries
Canada’s Primary Industries
  • Farming, logging, mining, fishing: 10% of gross domestic product
    • Canada is the world’s leading exporter of forest products
  • Mining: uranium, zinc, gold, and silver are exported
  • Fishing: domestic consumption is low, so most of catch is exported

the manufacturing sector
The Manufacturing Sector
  • 15% of Canadians work in manufacturing, create 1/5 of GDP
    • make cars, steel, appliances, equipment (high-tech, mining)
    • centered in heartland, from Quebec City, Quebec, to Windsor, Ontario

service industries drive the economy
Service Industries Drive the Economy
  • Most Canadians work in service industries, which create 60% of GDP
    • finance, utilities, trade, transportation, communication, insurance
    • land’s natural beauty makes tourism the fastest growing service
  • Heavy trade with U.S.: same language, open border (world’s longest)
    • 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with U.S., Mexico
    • 85% of Canadian exports go to U.S.
    • 75% of Canada’s imports come from U.S.

a land of many cultures
A Land of Many Cultures


Languages and Religions

  • Mixing of French and native peoples created métisculture
  • Bilingual: English is most common, except in French-speaking Quebec
  • English Protestants and French Catholics dominate, but often clash
    • increasing numbers of Muslims, Jews, other groups


canada s population
Canada’s Population
  • Densest in port cities (Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver) and farmlands
  • Environment keeps 80% of people on 10% of land (near U.S. border)
  • Urbanization: in 1900 33% of people lived in cities, today it’s 80%
  • Various ethnic groups cluster in certain areas
    • 75% of French Canadians live in Quebec
    • many native peoples live on reserves—public land set aside for them
    • most Inuits live in the remote Arctic north
    • many Canadians of Asian ancestry live on West Coast
life in canada today
Life in Canada Today

Employment and Education

  • Relatively high standard of living, well-educated population
  • Labor force is 55% men, 45% women
    • 75% in service industries, 15% in manufacturing
  • Oldest university, Laval, established in Quebec by French
  • English universities founded in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick in 1780s
  • Today, Canada has a 97% literacy rate

sports and recreation
Sports and Recreation
  • Popular sports: skating, ice hockey, fishing, skiing, golf, hunting
    • Canada has own football league; other pro teams play in U.S. leagues
    • native peoples developed lacrosse, European settlers developed hockey
  • Annual festivals include Quebec Winter Carnival, Calgary Stampede

the arts
The Arts
  • Earliest literature from oral traditions of First Nations peoples
  • Later writings from settlers, missionaries, explorers
  • Early visual arts seen in Inuit carving, West Coast totem poles
  • Early 1900s painting: unique style of Toronto’s Group of Seven
  • Shakespeare honored at Ontario’s world-famous Stratford Festival

section 3 sub regions of canada
Section 3: Sub regions of Canada
  • Canada is divided into four sub regions: the Atlantic, Core, Prairie Provinces, and the Pacific Province and then the Territories.
  • Each sub region possesses unique natural resources, landforms, economic activities, and cultural life.
the atlantic provinces
The Atlantic Provinces

Harsh Lands and Small Populations

  • Eastern Canada’s Atlantic Provinces:
    • Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland
  • Only 8% of Canada’s population, due to rugged terrain, harsh weather
  • Most people live in coastal cities such as:
    • Halifax, Nova Scotia
    • St. John, New Brunswick
  • 85% of Nova Scotia is rocky hills, poor soil
  • 90% of New Brunswick is forested
  • Newfoundland has severe storms

economic activities
Economic Activities
  • New Brunswick’s largest industry: logging (lumber, wood pulp, paper)
  • Gulf of St. Lawrence, coastal waters supply seafood for export
  • Nova Scotia: logging, fishing, shipbuilding, trade through Halifax
  • Newfoundland: fishing, mining, logging, hydro-electric power
    • supplies power to Quebec, parts of northeastern U.S.

the core provinces quebec and ontario
The Core Provinces—Quebec and Ontario

The Heartland of Canada

  • Quebec City: French explorer Samuel de Champlain built fort in 1608
  • 60% Canada’s population live in Core Provinces Ontarioand Quebec
    • Ontario has largest population; Quebec has largest land area

canada s political and economic center
Canada’s Political and Economic Center
  • Ottawa, Ontario is the national capital
  • Quebechas great political importance in French-Canadian life
  • Core: 35% of Canada’s crops, 45% of minerals, 70% of manufacturing
  • Torontothe largest city, finance hub; Montreal second largest city

The Rideau Canal in Ottawa freezes during the winter, and is used for ice skating!

the prairie provinces
The Prairie Provinces

Canada’s Breadbasket

  • Great Plains Prairie Provinces: Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta
  • 50% of Canada’s agricultural production, 60% of mineral output
    • Alberta has coal, oil deposits; produces 90% of Canada’s natural gas
a cultural mix
A Cultural Mix
  • Manitoba: Scots-Irish, Germans, Scandinavians, Ukrainians, Poles
  • Saskatchewan’s population includes Asian immigrants, Métis
  • Alberta’s diversity includes Indian, Japanese, Lebanese, Vietnamese
the pacific province and the territories
The Pacific Province and the Territories

British Columbia

  • British Columbia—westernmost province, mostly in Rocky Mountains
    • 1/2 is forests; 1/3 is frozen tundra, snowfields, glaciers
  • Most people live in southwest; major cities are Victoria, Vancouver
  • Economy built on logging, mining, hydroelectric power
    • Vancouver is Canada’s largest port, has prosperous shipping trade
the territories
The Territories
  • The three northern territories account for 41% of Canada’s land
  • Sparsely populated due to rugged land and severe climate
    • Yukonhas population of 30,000; mostly wilderness
    • Northwest Territories has population of 41,000; extends into Arctic
    • Nunavut was created from Northwest Territories in 1999; home to Inuit
  • Territories’ economies include mining, fishing, some logging
  • McdougalLittell, World Geography. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2012