Chapter 2 Themes: • State Symbols (pp. 20-21) • Physical and Cultural Geography (pp. 22-24) • Time Zones (p. 25) • Natural Land Regions (pp. 26-29) • Rivers and Bayous (pp. 30-35) • Controlling Louisiana’s Rivers (pp. 36-38) • Lakes (p. 39) • Climate (pp. 40-41) • Hurricanes (pp. 42-44) • Population; Cultural Regions (pp. 44-46) • Chapter Review (p. 47)
State Symbols • Flag/Motto: “Union, Justice, and Confidence” • Bird: Brown Pelican • Flower: Magnolia • Tree: Bald Cypress • Dog: Catahoula Cur
I. Physical and Cultural Geography • Geography: the study of places, their locations, and their physical and human characteristics • Physical geography: the study of landforms, oceans, weather, and climate • Cultural geography: the study of how people have interacted with, changed, and adapted to different places on the earth Louisiana’s physical geography has shaped its cultural geography. GLEs: 2, 3, 7, 11
A. Geographic Location • Resembles a boot • Florida Parishes stretch from Baton Rouge to Hammond to Bogalusa • Of the 50 states, LA ranks 31st in size • 3,600 square miles of water (1/4 of the state is wet)
B. Boundaries Four natural boundaries: • Mississippi River to the east • Pearl River to the east • Gulf of Mexico to the south • Sabine River to the west Three artificial boundaries: • 33 north latitude: Separates Louisiana and Arkansas • 31 north latitude: Separates the Florida Parishes from Mississippi • 94 west longitude: Separates Louisiana from Texas
**Is it Louisiana . . . or Mississippi? (Read more on page 24)
**Time Zones (Read more on page 25) • Earth has 24 time zones. • United States has six. • Pacific, Mountain, Central and Eastern are the four time zones in the contiguous (connected) United States. GLEs: 1
II. Natural Land Regions • Determined by climate, soil, vegetation, and relief • Relief: the difference in elevation between the highest and lowest points of area • Flat land = low relief • Hilly land = high relief • Three natural regions: • Coastal Marshes • Floodplains • Uplands GLEs: 5, 8, 9, 14
A. Coastal Marshes • Louisiana Gulf Coast is mostly coastal marshes. • Vegetation is grasses and other plants; trees are uncommon.
B. Floodplains • Low, flat valleys through which river flow • Swamps, sloughs, bayous, and lakes • Leafy deciduous trees (cypress, oak, hickory, pecan, magnolia, tupelo gum, and cottonwood) • Canebrakes • Rich, fertile land, which is good for agriculture
C. Uplands • Highest elevation in the state • Driskill Mountain, the highest point in the state, is 535 feet above sea level. • Formed by magma pressure and tectonic forces, which pushed the land upward • Erosion washed away soft material, leaving rocky hills. • Piney Hills (largest upland area) • Coniferous, evergreen trees
III. Rivers and Bayous Our many waterways make our state: • Productive • Famous • Mysterious • Home to a unique ecosystem GLEs: 2, 9, 11
A. Mississippi River • Main artery of Louisiana • Largest river in the United States • Fourth largest river in the world
B. Red River • Second longest river in Louisiana • High salt content because it flows over an underground salt dome • Only major river in Louisiana that has white water rapids • Rapides parish (French for rapids)
C. Atchafalaya River and Basin • Longest distributary (branch of a river that flows away from the main stream) of the Mississippi River • Half of all the nation’s migratory birds migrate to the Atchafalaya. • Basin supplies the world with 23 million pounds of crawfish a year.
D. Ouachita River • Begins in the mountains of Arkansas and runs through northeast Louisiana • Regulated by a series of locks that allow commercial barge traffic to travel to Arkansas
The Sabine, Pearl, and Calcasieu Rivers • The Sabine River forms the border between Texas and Louisiana. • The Pearl River forms the border between Mississippi and the toe of the Louisiana boot. • The Calcasieu River lies within the state and is often used for transportation.
F. Bayou Teche • Joins the Atchafalaya near the Gulf of Mexico • The Acadians (Cajuns) settled along its banks.
G. Bayou Lafourche • Exits the Mississippi River at Donaldsonville • Many French, Spanish, Africans, and Native Americans settled along its banks. • Highway 1, which runs the length of the bayou, is called the “Longest Street in America.”
H. Gulf Intracoastal Waterway The 3,000-mile Gulf Intracoastal Waterway allows ships to travel from Texas to Florida without sailing into the Gulf.
I. The Gulf of Mexico • Fifth largest sea in the world • Covers almost 600,000 square miles • Warm waters affect Louisiana’s climate and economy.