What is Psychology? Chapter One. Module Objectives. How do we define psychology? What are the major psychological perspectives? Psychology as a science. What is Psychology?. The term psychology comes from the Greek roots psyche meaning soul or mind and logos meaning word or study.
This is the worst way to prepare for an exam! Don’t confuse this for a quicker method of study- students who cram often perform more poorly than those who do not study at all!
This is a psychology urban legend! Although we will discuss the influence of sensation and perception below our threshold of awareness.
We will examine this ineffective practice when we begin our study of learning! Think about the prison system…a large scale example of punishment…does it work?
Our memories are very fragile and subject to many variables. We will examine the influence of memory formation during this semester.
It’s important to recognize the difference between psychology and pseudopsychology, which includes the area of psychics.
This disorder is very misunderstood among the general public. People often confuse this disorder with Multiple Personality Disorder, now known as Dissociative Identity Disorder
This quiz was a brief illustration of how psychological information is often misunderstood. Psychology is NOT limited to “common sense” information.
We will examine each of these questions in detail through the course of this class
to describe, explain, predict, and change behavior and mental processes
This is information based on direct observation and measurements with scientific method
Think on your own…
Make a list of words you would use to describe a psychologist…think about some images you have as well.
Think on your own..
Make a list of words would you use to describe a scientist? What images do you have?
You have a problem that you want to address in therapy…
Can any Psychologist help you?
This scientific focus remains today.
This group of Psychologists used a technique called Introspection which was a process of self-examination where the person described and analyzed thoughts as they occurred.
See p. 12
What are some childhood experiences that you feel have shaped who you are now as an adult?
Social: Focuses on interpersonal behavior and the role of social forces in governing behavior. Typical topics include attitude formation, attitude change, prejudice, conformity, attraction, aggression, intimate relationships, and behavior in groups.
Experimental: Encompasses the traditional core of topics such as sensation, perception, learning, conditioning, motivation and emotion.
Physiological: Examines the influence of genetic factors on behavior and the role of the brain, nervous system, endocrine system, and bodily chemicals in the regulation of behavior.
Cognitive: Focuses on “higher” mental processes such as memory, reasoning, information processing, language, problem solving, decision making, and creativity.
Personality: Interested in describing and understanding individuals’ consistency in behavior, which represents their personality. This area is interested in factors that shape personality and with personality assessment.
Counseling: Overlaps with clinical psychology in that specialists in both areas engage in similar activities – interviewing, testing, and providing therapy. Counseling psychologists usually work with a somewhat different clientele, providing assistance to people struggling with everyday problems of moderate severity – they specialize in family, marital, or career counseling.
Educational: Work to improve curriculum design, achievement testing, teacher training, and other aspects of the educational process. School psychologists usually work in elementary or secondary schools, where they test and counsel children having difficulties in school and aid parents and teachers in solving school-related problems.
I/O: Perform a wide variety of tasks in the world of business and industry. These tasks include running human resources departments, working to improve staff morale and attitudes, striving to increase job satisfaction and productivity, examining organizational structures and procedures, and making recommendations for improvements.
About 1/4th of American Psychologists work in colleges and universities.
The remaining 3/4ths work in hospitals, clinics, police departments, research institutes, government agencies, business and industry, schools, nursing homes, counseling centers, and private practice.
Next we will talk about why psychology is a science, which requires critical thinking. Use your imagination and “think outside the box” on this next puzzle.