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Planning for Water Reuse in Northeastern Illinois (and other places where most people think there is an abundant water supply) Illinois Waste Management and Research Center March 12, 2008 Paul Anderson, CAEE Department, IIT Acknowledgments Partners Illinois Institute of Technology

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slide1
Planning for Water Reuse in Northeastern Illinois (and other places where most people think there is an abundant water supply)

Illinois Waste Management and Research Center

March 12, 2008

Paul Anderson, CAEE Department, IIT

acknowledgments
Acknowledgments
  • Partners
    • Illinois Institute of Technology
    • Illinois Waste Management and Research Center
    • Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning
  • Sponsors
    • US EPA Science to Achieve Results Program
    • Illinois Waste Management and Research Center
  • Who does all the work
    • Sachin Pradhan
    • Yi Meng
    • Shihui Luo
    • Feng Huang
overview
Overview
  • Parts of NE Illinois are running out of water
  • Water reuse is part of the solution
  • Industries have hydrologic footprints
  • Issues that affect reuse planning
  • An integrated reuse system
ne illinois growing demand for water
NE Illinois: Growing demand for water

Dziegielewski et al. (2005)

we don t use water very efficiently
We don’t use water very efficiently

Domestic water use (USEPA, 2006)

ne illinois limited water sources

Unknown resources

Falling water table

Minimum flow requirements

Limited by Supreme Court decree

NE Illinois: Limited water sources

Northeastern Illinois regional non-cooling water source allocation (NIPC, 2001)

the illinois diversion
The Illinois Diversion

Lake Michigan

54%

2 WPPs

N.B. Chicago River

Users

Reuse

Combined

Sewer System

30%

16%

7 WWTPs

Lockport

Chicago Sanitary & Ship Canal, Cal-Sag Channel

Mississippi River

water reuse priorities
Water reuse priorities
  • Industrial
    • Process/cooling
  • Commercial/Domestic
    • Car wash
    • Toilet flush
    • Firefighting
  • Irrigation
  • Groundwater recharge
  • Potable water

Low

High

Quality

Priority

High

Low

industrial hydrologic footprints
Industrial hydrologic footprints
  • Measure of industry interaction with water
    • Conventional direct water use
    • Evaporative loss associated with electricity use
    • Stormwater runoff from industry property
    • Supply chain direct water use
    • Supply chain evaporative loss with electricity
estimating hydrologic footprints in chicago
Estimating hydrologic footprints in Chicago
  • Consider 50 largest volume water dischargers
  • Supply chain data from eiolca.net
  • Data normalized to economic activity (gal/$)
water electricity use for 31 industry sectors

High water & electricity use

Mid-water & electricity use

Low water & electricity use

Water & electricity use for 31 industry sectors
supply chain water electricity use
Supply chain water & electricity use

Supply chain dominated by less than 60 unique SIC codes

who makes up the supply chain
Who makes up the supply chain?
  • Blast furnaces and steel mills
  • Industrial inorganic and organic chemicals
  • Paper and paperboard mills
  • Petroleum refining
  • Pulp mills
  • Nitrogenous and phosphatic fertilizers
  • Primary aluminum
  • Plastics materials and resins
hydrologic footprint summary
Hydrologic footprint summary
  • Indirect use (stormwater, electricity) is small
  • Direct use (industry or supply chain) dominates
  • Supply chains are often important
  • Supply chains dominated by a few industries
  • 10% have relatively big footprints (gal/$)
  • What issues affect water reuse?
water reuse barriers incentives
Water reuse: Barriers & Incentives

Policy

Economics

Risk

Regulations

Technology

Water Source

WastewaterTreatment

Users

water reuse regulations
Water reuse regulations
  • Federal
    • There are no water reuse regulations
    • Guidelines for Water Reuse (USEPA, 2004)
  • States (2004 data)
    • 25 states have regulations
    • 16 states have guidelines
    • 9 states without regulations or guidelines
  • Illinois regulations address land application
water reuse risks
Water reuse risks
  • Ecosystem risks
    • Chemical contaminants of concern
    • Nutrients
  • Human health risks
    • Pathogenic organisms

Bacteria, viruses, protozoa

    • Chemical contaminants of concern
      • Pharmaceuticals
      • Pesticides, herbicides
      • Disinfection by-products
slide19
“…there have not been any confirmed cases of infectious disease resulting from the use of properly treated reclaimed water in the U.S.”

USEPA (2004)

  • Are there unconfirmed cases?
  • What about non-infectious disease?
  • How long does it take to see effects?
  • What about incidental reuse?
  • What about ecosystem risks?
is wastewater reuse economical
Is wastewater reuse economical?
  • Objective:
    • Minimize cost
  • Constraints:
    • Demand
    • Mass balance
    • Capacity
    • Water withdrawal
    • Water quality
costs have a spatial relationship
Costs have a spatial relationship

Volume demand increases with distance

III

II

I

costs depend on flow distance26
Costs depend on flow & distance

Increasing the distanceincreases the cost

Increasing the flowdecreases the cost

The minimum cost

kirie case study
Kirie case study
  • 28 Significant Industrial Users
    • Metal finishing: 16
    • Electroplating: 4
    • Others: 8
  • Total water discharge: 1.09 MGD
  • Assume 50% treated effluent use
  • Supply effluent 12 months/year
    • 6 months/year additional chlorination
kirie case study parameters
Kirie case study parameters
  • Interests rate: 6%

5%~10%

  • Utility service life: 40 years

25~40 years

  • Amortization period: 40 years

25~40 years

  • Pipeline installation unit cost: 75 US$/feet

75 ~ 200 US$/feet

slide30

Kirie case study

Zone 1

Zone 2

Zone 3

slide32

Kirie case study

Zones 1 & 2

slide33

Kirie case study

Zones 1, 2 & 3

slide34

Elk Grove Village water

Chicago municipal water

Cost depends on volume & distance

(i = 6%, t = 40 years, Pipeline US$75/feet)

chicago reuse study summary
Chicago reuse study summary
  • Pipeline installation costs dominate
  • Spatial relationships affect supply cost
  • Reuse can be cost effective
  • Chicago is an unusual case study
    • Municipal water is very cheap
    • Reuse offers no economic incentive to MWRDGC
    • Chicago’s successful water conservation efforts
what about the western suburbs
What about the western suburbs?
  • Recent drought
  • Municipal water costs are higher
  • Groundwater supplies uncertain
  • Surface water up to 35% treated effluent
new issues in the suburbs
New issues in the suburbs
  • Industrial clusters are limited
  • Distribution over longer distances
  • Consider non-industrial users
    • Park district, golf course, forest preserve
    • Limited seasonal demand
    • Potential increased exposure
integrated water reuse planning for the suburbs
Integrated water reuse planning for the suburbs
  • Inventory available land considering:
    • IEPA land application regulations
    • Distance
    • Relationship to potential co-users
  • Model fate and transport
    • Soil, groundwater, surface water
    • Process design and operation
are there other reuse incentives
Are there other reuse incentives?
  • Greatest cost: Distribution system
  • Is there another benefit?
    • Once you install a secondary distribution system, is there another use?
geothermal heat pumps
Geothermal heat pumps
  • “…the most energy efficient, environmentally clean, and cost-effective space conditioning systems available.” (USEPA, 1993)
  • Benefits (USDOE, 1998):
    • Less energy consumption
    • Lower operating costs
    • Reduced carbon emissions
effluent as a heat source sink
Effluent as a heat source/sink
  • Growing interest in water-source heat pumps
    • Illinois Clean Energy Community Foundation
      •  20 geothermal demonstration systems
    • Space conditioning and hot water supply
    • Payback < 10 years
  • Benefits of working with effluent
    • Higher temperature implies higher efficiency
    • Avoid drilling to install ground loops
dual purpose distribution system
Dual-purpose distribution system
  • Integrated infrastructure
    • Non-potable water supply
    • Ground loop for heat pump system
  • Issues
    • Economics
    • Regulations
    • Technology
    • Risk
    • Policy
summary thoughts
Summary thoughts…
  • Water reuse can help meet demand
  • Hydrologic footprints measure efficiency
  • Incentives & barriers for reuse
    • Soft: Technology, policy, regulations
    • Hard: Public perceptions, economics
  • Water reuse can be economical
    • Integrated planning for multiple uses
    • Consider water & energy