Fragmentation of Sustainable Tourism market ‘new tourism’ (1979) alternative tourism (Butler, 1990) ecotourism (1996) literary tourism (1996) ethnic tourism (1999) volunteer tourism (2001) pro-poor tourism (2002) justice tourism (2002) geotourism (2003) reconciliation tourism (2006)
Eco-Tourism Sources of agreement: Nature based Environmentally educated, Sustainably managed Sources of confusion in definition of Eco-Tourism 1. scientific, conservation, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) 2. multilateral aid institutions 3. developing countries 4. the travel industry and traveling public.
Geotourism Geo tourism is defined as tourism that sustains or enhances the geographical character of a place—its environment, culture, aesthetics, heritage, and the well-being of its residents. Geo-tourism incorporates the concept of sustainable tourism—that destinations should remain unspoiled for future generations—while allowing for ways to protect a place's character. Geo-tourism also takes a principle from its ecotourism cousin,—that tourism revenue should promote conservation—and extends it to culture and history as well, that is, all distinctive assets of a place.
Geo-tourism distinquished from Eco-tourism Geo-tourism focuses on the geographical character of a region many definitions of ecotourism limit ecotourism to only occurring in protected or natural areas.
Geotourism Charter Governments and allied organizations that sign this statement of principles take a first step in adopting a geotourism strategy. After committing to a geotourism strategy, signatories then work with local communities to determine their geotourism goals.
National Geographic Geo-Tourism Charter This global template is designed for nations but can also be adjusted for signature by provinces, states, or smaller jurisdictions, and for endorsement by international organizations. Geotourism is defined as tourism that sustains or enhances the geographical character of a place – its environment, culture, aesthetics, heritage, and the well-being of its residents. The Geotourism Charter WHEREAS the geotourism approach is all-inclusive, focusing not only on the environment, but also on the diversity of the cultural, historic, and scenic assets of _______, WHEREAS the geotourism approach encourages citizens and visitors to get involved rather than remain tourism spectators, and WHEREAS the geotourism approach helps build a sense of national identity and pride, stressing what is authentic and unique to________, THE UNDERSIGNED parties to this Agreement of Intent commit to support these geotourism principles, to sustain and enhance the geographical character of _________—its environment, culture, aesthetics, heritage, and the well-being of its residents:
Areas of emphasis Tourist-oriented focus Integrity of place International codes Market selectivity Market diversity Tourist satisfaction Location oriented focus Community involvement Community benefit Protection and enhancement of destination appeal Anticipate land use Sustainiblility focus Conservation of resources Planning Interactive interpretation Evaluation
Integrity of place: Enhance geographical character by developing and improving it in ways distinctive to the locale, reflective of its natural and cultural heritage, so as to encourage market differentiation and cultural pride. International codes: Adhere to the principles embodied in the World Tourism Organization’s Global Code of Ethics for Tourism and the Principles of the Cultural Tourism Charter established by the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS). Market selectivity: Encourage growth in tourism market segments most likely to appreciate, respect, and disseminate information about the distinctive assets of the locale. Market diversity: Encourage a full range of appropriate food and lodging facilities, so as to appeal to the entire demographic spectrum of the geotourism market and so maximize economic resiliency over both the short and long term. Tourist satisfaction: Ensure that satisfied, excited geotourists bring new vacation stories home and send friends off to experience the same thing, thus providing continuing demand for the destination.
Community involvement: Base tourism on community resources to the extent possible, encouraging local small businesses and civic groups to build partnerships to promote and provide a distinctive, honest visitor experience and market their locales effectively. Help businesses develop approaches to tourism that build on the area’s nature, history and culture, including food and drink, artisanry, performance arts, etc. Community benefit: Encourage micro-to medium-size enterprises and tourism business strategies that emphasize economic and social benefits to involved communities, especially poverty alleviation, with clear communication of the destination stewardship policies required to maintain those benefits. Protection and enhancement of destination appeal: Encourage businesses to sustain natural habitats, heritage sites, aesthetic appeal, and local culture. Prevent degradation by keeping volumes of tourists within maximum acceptable limits. Seek business models that can operate profitably within those limits. Use persuasion, incentives, and legal enforcement as needed. Land use: Anticipate development pressures and apply techniques to prevent undesired overdevelopment and degradation. Contain resort and vacation-home sprawl, especially on coasts and islands, so as to retain a diversity of natural and scenic environments and ensure continued resident access to waterfronts. Encourage major self-contained tourism attractions, such as large-scale theme parks and convention centers unrelated to character of place, to be sited in needier locations with no significant ecological, scenic, or cultural assets.
Conservation of resources: Encourage businesses to minimize water pollution, solid waste, energy consumption, water usage, landscaping chemicals, and overly bright nighttime lighting. Advertise these measures in a way that attracts the large, environmentally sympathetic tourist market. Planning: Recognize and respect immediate economic needs without sacrificing long-term character and the geo-tourism potential of the destination. Where tourism attracts in-migration of workers, develop new communities that themselves constitute a destination enhancement. Strive to diversify the economy and limit population influx to sustainable levels. Adopt public strategies for mitigating practices that are incompatible with geo-tourism and damaging to the image of the destination. Interactive interpretation: Engage both visitors and hosts in learning about the place. Encourage residents to show off the natural and cultural heritage of their communities, so that tourists gain a richer experience and residents develop pride in their locales. Evaluation: Establish an evaluation process to be conducted on a regular basis by an independent panel representing all stakeholder interests, and publicize evaluation results.
About Geo-tourism Geo-tourism is defined as tourism that sustains or enhances the geographical character of a place—its environment, culture, aesthetics, heritage, and the well-being of its residents. Geo-tourism incorporates the concept of sustainable tourism—that destinations should remain unspoiled for future generations—while allowing for ways to protect a place's character. Geo-tourism also takes a principle from its ecotourism cousin,—that tourism revenue should promote conservation—and extends it to culture and history as well, that is, all distinctive assets of a place. The Geo-tourism Charter: Governments and allied organizations that sign this statement of principles take a first step in adopting a geo-tourism strategy. After committing to a geo-tourism strategy, signatories then work with local communities to determine their geo-tourism goals.
What Is Sustainable Tourism? Sustainable tourism, like a doctor's code of ethics, means "First, do no harm." It is the foundation for destination stewardship. Sustainable tourism protects its product-the destination. It avoids the "loved to death" syndrome by anticipating development pressures and applying limits and management techniques that preserve natural habitats, heritage sites, scenic appeal, and local culture. It conserves resources. Environmentally aware travelers patronize businesses that reduce pollution, waste, energy consumption, water usage, landscaping chemicals, and excessive nighttime lighting. It respects local culture and tradition. Foreign visitors learn local etiquette, including at least a few courtesy words in the local language. Residents learn how to deal with foreign expectations that may differ from their own. It aims for quality, not quantity. Destinations measure tourism success not just by numbers of visitors, but by length of stay, how they spend their money, and the quality of their experience.
What Is Geotourism? Geo-tourism adds to sustainability principles by building on a destination's geographical character, its "sense of place," to emphasize the distinctiveness of its locale and benefit visitor and resident alike. Geo-tourism is synergistic: All the elements of geographical character work together to create a tourist experience that is richer than the sum of its parts, appealing to visitors with diverse interests. It involves the community. Local businesses and civic groups join to provide a distinctive, authentic visitor experience. It informs both visitors and hosts. Residents discover their own heritage by learning that things they take for granted may be interesting to outsiders. As local people develop pride and skill in showing off their locale, tourists get more out of their visit.
Who Benefits? It benefits residents economically. Travel businesses hire local workers, and use local services, products, and supplies. When community members understand the benefits of geo-tourism, they take responsibility for destination stewardship. It supports integrity of place. Destination-savvy travelers seek out businesses that emphasize the character of the locale. In return, local stakeholders who receive economic benefits appreciate and protect the value of those assets. It means great trips. Enthusiastic visitors bring home new knowledge. Their stories encourage friends and relatives to experience the same thing, which brings continuing business for the destination.
Websites and links The Center for Sustainable Tourism maintains a number of useful web resources. Paid Internships Academic Links